640px-fall_aspen_trees_in_the_la_sal_mountainsCreating a Conservation Alternative
for the Manti-La Sal National Forest

Welcome to a literature repository for the upcoming Manti-La Sal National Forest planning process. With your help, we are building a conservation minded alternative to offer a vision for the MLSNF. This plan will observe all the best available science, emphasizing local landscape level conservation, wildlife and wild lands protections,, all while being sensitive to the big picture of global climate and meeting the legal expectations of the forest to provide timber and grazing in the most responsible possible way. We believe firmly that all these values can be considered together with science and long-view thinking as a basis for a multiple use forest that is managed to respect living communities the world over.

This repository is organized into topics that are mandated by the 2012 Forest Planning rule from the US Forest Service. For more information about the rule and forest planning, you can read the Forest Service description of the rule on their website. To view the articles which are already being incorporated in the working draft, click  on ‘List of Literature’ above. 

Submitting Articles

If you wish to submit recent and relevant scientific literature to the alternative, please do! Click on the ‘Add a Resource’ tab above, and please fill out all the fields. If the resource is behind a paywall, or may not be accessible online, please upload a PDF or other easy to read format of the full scientific paper. Please write a short but descriptive note of why you want this included, and how you think the knowledge in the resource can be applied. Please do not add resources because you think they may be interesting but you have not read them; it is your help finding and pre-screening articles to see where they fit into an alternative that will make this repository useful!

Please also generate a valid citation for your resource in ISO-690 format and paste it into the ‘Quick Citation’ field of the form. You can do this with help from websites such as the citation machine. Accurate citations will help us to speedily compile a bibliography, and also can help us locate a resource if a web link dies or a file is corrupted. 

Example Citations Generate a Citation

 Collaborators

If you have a username and password to work on this project as a collaborator, you can click on the ‘Collaborators’ tab above to get started. If you would like information on becoming a core collaborator, please contact Mary O’Brien at maryobrien10@gmail.com.

Literature Repository

Below are all of the submitted resources for this project. Topic names are followed by the amount of documents filed in them. Click on a topic to show/hide its documents.


There are 164 articles and resources in the repository!

No articles found.
Advice: Six key points for conserving pollinators amid grazing 🌐
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Grazed lands and pollinators; 6 key points for managing grazing to provide for pollinators.

Quick Citation: BLACK, Scott Hoffman, SHEPHERD, Matthew and VAUGHAN, Mace. Rangeland Management for Pollinators. Rangelands. 2011. Vol. 33, no. 3p. 9–13.

Advice: Pollinators in natural habitat; particular concerns about grazing during the spring and summer 🌐
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Concerns about grazing during the spring and during the summer.

Quick Citation: BLACK, Scott Hoffman, HODGES, Nathan, VAUGHAN, Mace, and SHEPHERD, Matthew. 2007. Pollinators in Natural Areas: A Primer on Habitat Management. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.

Advice: Native plants for pollinators 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Advice for management of pollinators on public lands

Quick Citation: Ley EL, S Buchmann, L Stritch, and G Soltz. Public lands: 14 in Selecting Plants for Pollinators: A Regional Guide for Farmers, Land Managers and Gardeners in the Intermountain Semidesert and Desert Province. San Francisco, CA: The Pollinator Partnership and NAPPC.

Draft BMPs for better conserving native pollinators -everything from assessment to protection to restoration 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Essential BMPs for bringing pollinators into focus for the first time on national forest lands

Quick Citation: United State Department of Agriculture. 2015. Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices for Federal Lands. USDA, Washington, D.C.

Research: Long-term trends in restoration and land management in the southwest 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article used mapping data and land manager records from 1940 to 2010 to assess the long term trends in vegetation restoration on BLM lands across the southwestern United States. The results found that vegetation treatments on southwestern public lands are increasingly aligning with restoration practices, such as using native rather than nonnative species, and using diverse plant material. However, planning for future vegetation treatments could benefit from landscape-level, cost-effective restoration strategies, and should preferentially occur when forecasts predict years with cooler temperatures and higher precipitation. Additionally, there is a need for more posttreatment monitoring to determine success.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The MLNF performs vegetation treatments, therefore the MLNF could benefit from suggestions outlined in this paper such as landscape-level restoration strategies, performing restoration treatments in cooler years, and monitoring posttreatment.

Quick Citation: Copeland, S.M., Munson, S.M., Pilliod, D.S., Welty, J.L., Bradford, J.B., Butterfield, B.J. 2017. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States. Restoration Ecology.

Testimony: solutions to reduce risks of catastrophic wildfire and improve resilience 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Kristina Young

This testimony outlines ways to reduce risks to catastrophic wildfire and improve resilience in National Forests. It states clearly that wildfire is a necessary and natural disturbance process in forests. However, large wildfires are increasing since the 1980s from 140 to 250 per year. Some researchers estimate that more than half of the increase in acres burned over the past several decades is related to climate change. Recent studies have shown that forest fires burn hottest in areas that have previously been logged when compared to the natural fire mosaic patterns that burn in wilderness, parks, and Roadless areas. The testimony also clearer states that beetle killed forests are not more susceptible to forest fires. The testimony outlines what we know about fire and forest management, such as wilderness and protected areas are not especially prone to forest fire, state lands are not at lower wildfire risk than federal lands, thinning is ineffective in extreme fire weather, post-disturbance salvage logging reduces forest resilience and can raise fire hazards.

Implications for forest plan assessment:The Manti-La Sal has overcrowded forests that will continue to burn at increasing severity as climate continues to change. This testimony outlines how management actions interact with forest fires, which can inform decisions in the Manti-La Sal.

Quick Citation: Testimony of Dr. Dominick A. DellaSala Chief Scientist hearings before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Exploring Solutions to Reduce Risks of Catastrophic Wildfire and Improve Resilience of National Forests. September 7, 2017

AND

Area burned in 11 Western states, 1916-2012 figure by J. Littell

Review: Importance of wild bees and bee community habitat restoration recommendations 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Kristina Young

This review outlines the importance of wild bees, both ecologically and economically. It also reviews the reasons for bee decline, including habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, nonnative species, and pesticides. Finally, the review outlines strategies for bee community restoration. These strategies include, determining what factors limit bee population size, restoring the flora that bees rely on, restoring bee nesting sites, and reducing habitat fragmentation.

Implications for forest plant assessment:
The MLNF has wild bees that are likely in decline. Management actions that work to restore native bee communities can help to eliminate bee decline and make more resilient bee communities in the MLNF.

Quick Citation: Winfree, R. 2010. The conservation and restoration of wild bees. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 169-197. 1195.

Forest Service allocates more to fighting fires and less to restoration and management 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Kristina Young

The agency report finds that 50% of the Forest Service’s annual budget was dedicated to wildfire in 2015, in addition to a 39% reduction in non-fire personnel, and millions of dollars spent on fire suppression costs. Climate change has increased the fire season, putting even more stress on the Forest Service’s suppression efforts. As a result, the agency is forced to transfer funds meant for restoration projects and resource management towards fighting fires. Funding for non-fire programs have not kept pace with increased cost of fighting fire. This requires the agency to forego opportunities to complete vital restoration work and meet public expectations for services. The report concludes that wildfires need to be treated like other natural disasters where Congress allocates money. This would preserve the necessary funds for the agency to do required restoration and resource maintenance.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The MLNF should plan for increase in costs of fighting fires when making budget decisions. This includes reducing multi-use impacts, as the MLNF will likely not have a large budgets for restoration after multi-use activities, such as grazing, off-road vehicles, and increased recreation.

Quick Citation: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Forest Service. 2015. The Rising Cost of Wildfire Operations: Effects on the Forest Service’s Non-Fire Work.

Bulletin: A new definition of drought that incorporates ecosystem services 🌐
Best management practices • Submitted by Kristina Young

This bulletin outlines the problems with the way “drought” is defined and managed for. Specifically, the bulletin proposed the existing definition of drought is viewed through a agricultural, hydrological, and socioeconomic lens, without accounting for the ecological impacts of drought and how those impacts influence ecosystem services. The authors provide a new definition of drought: “episodic deficit in water availability that drives ecosystems beyond thresholds of vulnerability, impacts ecosystem services, and triggers feedbacks in natural and/or human systems.” This new definition comes from an integrated framework developed by the authors that incorporates the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecosystems to droughts and examines a continuum from human to natural factors that are influenced by drought.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The Manti-La Sal will experience increased episodic droughts with future climate change. The management plan should consider the sensitivity of ecosystem services to drought under future climate change.

Quick Citation: Crausbay et al. 2017. Defining ecological drought for the 21st century. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

Remote anaylsis showing drying of vegetation on MLSNF over 25 years 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Essential MLSNF assessment: Drying of vegetation on MLSNF due to global warming

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, Cerissa. 2016. Change in Vegetation Productivity for Three National Forests in Utah, 1986-2011: Dixie, Fishlake, and Manti-La Sal National Forests. Grand Canyon Trust.

Report on projected changes in temperature and precipitation for MLSNF counties 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Bethany Llewellyn

While precipitation is projected to remain at similar levels, rising temperatures may cause drought conditions.

Quick Citation: LLEWELLYN, Bethany. 2016. Trends in Temperature and Precipitation for Counties in the Manti-La Sal National Forest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Climate Change Annotated Bibliography 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is an annotated bibliography of 67 research or review articles on global warming/climate change impacts on the Colorado Plateau, relevant to Manti-La Sal NF. Many/most of the impacts (drought, higher temperatures, earlier snowmelt, etc.) are cumulative with other impacts, including grazing and other surface disturbances.

Quick Citation: Hoglander, C., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Annotated Bibliography: Current and Projected Climate Change Impacts for the Colorado Plateau: Assessment Implications for the Manti-La Sal NF Plan Revision. Unpublished document, Grand Canyon Trust.

Climate Change 69 articles – Co Plaateau articles 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The 69 research and review articles in this bibliography are those that are summarized in the Climate Change annotated bibliography

Quick Citation: Sixty-Nine Articles on Climate Change on the Colorado Plateau

Research: 20-year study showing declines of alpine forbs at the southern margins 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Over a twenty-year period (1988-2014), 46 populations of arctic-alpine or boreal plants at the southern margins of their alpine area, fen, or forest were studied for their trends in density, by species. Dicots (broad-leaved plants) declined 5.8% per year, while monocots (sedges, grasses) remained more stable. This article cites similar results over shorter periods of time or with experimental increases in temperature.

Quick Citation: Lesica, P, and E.E. Crone. 2017. Arctic and boreal plant species decline at their southern range limits in the Rocky Mountains. Ecology Letters 20: 166–174

Research: Overlapping influence of land use and climate change on the Colorado Plateau 🌐 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

The combination of co-occurring climate change and increasing land-use is likely to affect future environmental and socioeconomic conditions in drylands; these hyper-arid to sub-humid landscapes are limited by water resources and prone to land degradation. We characterized the potential for geographic overlap among land-use practices and between land-use and climate change on the Colorado Plateau. This analytical framework for assessing the potential impacts of overlapping land-use and climate change could be applied with other drivers of change or to other regions to create scenarios at various spatial scales in support of natural resource planning efforts.

Quick Citation: Copeland, S. M., J. B. Bradford, M. C. Duniway, and R. M. Schuster. 2017. Potential impacts of overlapping land-use and climate in a sensitive dryland: a case study of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Ecosphere 8(5):e01823. 10.1002/ecs2.1823

Research: cumulative impacts of herbivory and drought with crabs grazing salt marshes in China 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study of crabs that graze salt marsh grass in China is an example of how grazers add to plant stress both during and after drought. Where the grazing crabs were excluded, drought only moderately affected the salt marsh grasses; mortality during and after the drought was high with the grazers present.Implications for forest plan assessment: The EIS needs to describe the implications of grazing for both the recent dominance of below-average rainfall years coupled with rises in temperature.

Quick Citation: He, Q., B.R. Silliman, Z. Liu, an B. Cui. 2017. Natural enemies govern ecosystem resilience in the face of extreme droughts. Ecology Letters 20 (2), 194-201.

Research: economic cost to society caused by addition of CO2 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Study estimating the social cost of carbon in terms of the economic cost caused by an additional ton of carbon dioxide emission. The study estimates that the social cost of carbon is $31 per ton of CO2 in 2010. The real social cost of carbon grows at 3% per year over the period to 2050. Relevant to the Manti-La Sal Forest Plan due to the carbon costs associated with timber, grazing, mining, and recreation.

Quick Citation: Nordhaus, WD (2016). Revisiting the social costs of carbon. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences, 114 (7), 1518–1523.

Research: responses of plant communities to pulses of extreme drought on top of prolonged drought 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

When subjected to an extreme drought on top of a prolonged drought (which is a likely scenario in this region under future climate change) plant community types responded differently. C3 grasses were most sensitive and prone to mortality. C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivity. C3 shrubs were the most resistant to mortality. These differential responses to overlapping drought events suggest that ecosystem components will respond differently to changes to climate, and resilient ecosystems are needed in order to mitigate potential and unexpected mortality.

Quick Citation: Hoover, D.L., Duniway, M.C. & Belnap, J. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems. Oecologia (2015) 179: 1211. doi:10.1007/s00442-015-3414-3

Research:different responses of grasses and shrubs to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study examines the responses of grasses and shrubs on the Colorado Plateau to chronic drought. It appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future with less precipitation and higher temperatures may increase the dominance of shrubs on the Colorado Plateau, as grasses succumb to chronic water stress.

Quick Citation: Hoover, D. L., Duniway, M. C. and Belnap, J. (2017), Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau. J Ecol, 105: 152–162. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12647

Review: Using state change-land-use change framework to consider desertification and dryland transformation 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

The paper suggests a detailed model of vegetation and soil change (i.e. state change that comprise of equilibrium states, non-equilibrium states, and thresholds) combined with an understanding of land-use change as a broad, process-oriented way to manage the continued transformation of drylands.

Quick Citation: Bestelmeyer, B. T., Okin, G. S., Duniway, M. C., Archer, S. R., Sayre, N. F., Williamson, J. C. and Herrick, J. E. (2015), Desertification, land use, and the transformation of global drylands. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 13: 28–36. doi:10.1890/140162

Research: groundwater comprises a greater fraction of CO River basin water use than previously thought 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study found that throughout the CO river basin, there was a net negative change in groundwater storage, which the authors considered an indication that groundwater withdrawal was not balanced by recharge. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (5.6 ± 0.4 km3 yr1) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states. The opportunity for the groundwater to recharge will be infrequent under future climate change.

Quick Citation: Castle, S. L., B. F. Thomas, J. T. Reager, M. Rodell, S. C. Swenson, and J. S. Famiglietti (2014), Groundwater depletion during drought threatens future water security of the Colorado River Basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5904–5911, doi:10.1002/2014GL061055.

Research: increasing year round temperatures will increase visitation to national parks 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study found that visitation to National Parks increases with increasing monthly temperatures. Warming-mediated increases in potential visitation are projected for most months of the year in most parks, with 13-31 day expansion in visitation to most parks. The results suggests that protected areas and neighboring communities need to develop adaptation strategies for these change in visitation.

Quick Citation: Fisichelli NA, Schuurman GW, Monahan WB, Ziesler PS (2015) Protected Area Tourism in a Changing Climate: Will Visitation at US National Parks Warm Up or Overheat? PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128226. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128226

Research: impact of dust on duration of mountain snow 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Snow cover duration in the San Juan Mountains was found to be shorted by 18 to 35 days due to the changes in albedo and warmer surface temperatures associated with desert dust landing on snow. This has large consequences for the water budget of the CO river basin. Additionally, the projected increases in drought intensity and frequency and associated increases in dust emission from the desert southwest may further reduce snow cover duration.

Quick Citation: Painter, T. H., A. P. Barrett, C. C. Landry, J. C. Neff, M. P. Cassidy, C. R. Lawrence, K. E. McBride, and G. L. Farmer (2007), Impact of disturbed desert soils on duration of mountain snow cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12502, doi:10.1029/2007GL030284.

Research: climate induced mortality of Pinyon in the Southwest 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Research: This research looked that the results of drought-induced mortality of pinyon trees in the Southwest. They found stand densities did not impact mortality levels for trees, had some effects on fire structure, and found that arthropods were moderately influenced by habitat changes. Together these findings suggest the impacts of drought-induced tree mortality might not appear for years or decades after a major mortality event.

Quick Citation: Clifford, Michael J.; Rocca, Monique E.; Delph, Robert; Ford, Paulette L.; Cobb, Neil S. 2008. Drought induced tree mortality and ensuing bark beetle outbreaks in southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Gottfried, Gerald J.; Shaw, John D.; Ford, Paulette L., compilers. 2008. Ecology, management, and restoration of pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine ecosystems: combined proceedings of the 2005 St. George, Utah and 2006 Albuquerque, New Mexico workshops. Proceedings RMRS-P-51. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 39-51

Research: extent of complete removal of forest patches in the continental US 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research calculates that total forest loss was around 90,400 km squared in the 1990s in the continental US. The study found very high levels of attrition in the western US, in rural areas and on public lands, along with the loss of key forests in adjacent ecoregions that serve as the closest forested resource for wildlife. In order to sequester more carbon, this study suggests understanding patterns of attrition, and mitigating the carbon cost by replanting trees may be necessary.

Quick Citation: Yang S, Mountrakis G (2017) Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0171383.

Research: showing that to keep global warming below 2 degrees C coal needs o be left in the ground 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Modeling approach showing that in order to keep global warming below the target goal of 2 degrees C, 1/3 of oil reserves, half of gas reserves, and over 80% of coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050.

Quick Citation: McGlade, C., Ekins, P. 2015. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature. 517(7533):187-90

Research: examining the amount of methane emitted during coal mining 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Considerable amounts of methane are released into the atmosphere with coal-mine ventilation air. A single ventilation shaft may discharge several hundred thousand cubic metres of ventilated air that includes methane per hour. As a greenhouse gas, methane is 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

Quick Citation: Warmuzinski, K. 2008. Harnessing methane emissions from coal mining. Process Safety & Environmental Protection: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers Part B. 86:5, 315-320.

Review: The potential for the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Book chapter: Looking at the terrestrial carbon sink and the potential for the sink to become saturated as CO2 levels continue to increase

Quick Citation: Canadell, J. G., D. E. Pataki, R. Gifford, R. A. Houghton, Y. Luo, M. R. Raupach, P. Smith, and W. Steffen (2007), Saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, in Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, edited by J. G. Canadell, D. E. Pataki, and L. F. Pitelka, pp. 59–78, Springer, Berlin, Germany.

Research: methane plumes over the Four Corners due to gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, well pads, and coal mine venting shafts 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. The analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ∼∼ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ∼∼ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft.

Quick Citation: Frankenberg, C. et al. 2016. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region. PNAS. 113 (35) 9734-9739

Research: methane emissions from grazing animals from the national scale to the global scale 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose atmospheric abundance has grown 2.5-fold over three centuries, due in large part to agricultural expansion. The farming of ruminant livestock, which generate and emit methane during digestion is a leading contributor to this growth. This paper concludes livestock are possibly one of the largest emitters of methane in the world.

Quick Citation: Lassey, K.R., 2007. Livestock methane emissions: from the individual grazing animal through national inventories to the global methane cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142, 120-132.

Review: refuting the Savory Method of grazing and pointing out the lack of science behind it 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Allan Savory’s grazing regime that he claims to be able to green the desert and resist climate change is not based on any science. The authors find all of Savory’s claims unfounded. In fact the authors suggest that Mr. Savory’s method to reverse rangeland degradation and/or climate change might actually accelerate these processes.

Quick Citation: Briske, D.D., Bestelmeyer, B.T., Brown, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Polley, H.W., 2013. The Savory
Method can not green deserts or reverse climate change. Rangelands 35, 72–74.

Review: reviewing the literature on grazing management and showing wrong information in the holistic management system 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Review of grazing literature found no peer-reviewed study showing that the grazing method of holistic management was superior to conventional grazing systems in outcomes. The authors find holistic management is just as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as conventional grazing.

Quick Citation: Carter J., Jones A., O’Brien M., Ratner J., Wuerthner G. 2014. “Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems,” International Journal of Biodiversity. 2014:163431

Research: comparison of multiple ecosystem functions in grazed and ungrazed watershed in Southeast Utah 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

When comparing grazed and ungrazed watersheds, the authors found clearly high levels of forage production, dust retention, and C storage attained in the ungrazed watershed. The differences were strongest when examining dust retention and C storage.

Quick Citation: Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E., and Belote, R.T., 2012, Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1061, 56 p.

Research: expansion of cheatgrass has changed portions of western US from a carbon sink to carbon source 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Field research in north central Nevada compared carbon storage in adjacent plots of invasive grassland and native shrubland in 2004. The researchers scaled-up the impact of this ecosystem shift using regional maps of the current invasion and of the risk of future invasion. The expansion of cheatgrass within the Great Basin has released an estimated 8 +/- 3 Tg C to the atmosphere,and will likely release another 50 +/- 20 Tg C in the coming decades. This ecosystem conversion has changed portions of the western US from a carbon sink to a source,making previous estimates of a western carbon sink almost certainly spurious. The growing importance of invasive species in driving land cover changes may substantially change future estimates of US terrestrial carbon storage.

Quick Citation: BRADLEY, B. A., HOUGHTON, R. A., MUSTARD, J. F. and HAMBURG, S. P. 2006. Invasive grass reduces aboveground carbon stocks in shrublands of the Western US. Global Change Biology, 12: 1815–1822. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01232.x

Climate Change Annotated Bibliography II 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This is an annotated bibliography of 14 research or review articles on global warming/climate change, grazing, and biodiversity, and extraction impacts on the Colorado Plateau, relevant to Manti-La Sal NF. Many/most of the impacts (drought, higher temperatures, earlier snowmelt, etc.) are cumulative with other impacts, including grazing, extraction, and other surface disturbances.

Quick Citation: O’Brien, M. 2017. Annotated Bibliography: Current and Projected Climate Change Impacts for the Colorado Plateau: Assessment Implications for the Manti-La Sal NF Plan Revision II. Unpublished document, Grand Canyon Trust.

Carbon Stocks & Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annotated Bibliography 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This is an annotated bibliography of 9 research or review articles on carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions relevant to Manti-La Sal NF.

Quick Citation: O’Brien, M. 2017. Annotated bibliography of some new information relevant to assessment of MLSNF for the forest plan revision surrounding carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions. Unpublished document, Grand Canyon Trust.

Research: pika habitat loss under climate change in the Sierra Nevadas 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article looks at declines of American pika within the species’ core habitat (i.e. not on the edges of the habitat) in California’s Sierra Nevada mountains. Field sites were surveyed from 2011 to 2016, and fecal pellets were collected and radiocarbon dated to determine if pika occupation was recent or historic. Pika habitat was then modeled against climate records from 1910 to 2015 to find suitable habitat. The authors conclude that pikas were extirpated from some of their core habitat by climate change, which lead to habitat fragmentation and loss of connectivity. Additionally, in some areas, the timeframe of shrinking pika distribution as a result of warming temperatures is likely to be on the scale of decades, not centuries.
The MLNF has pika habitat on high mountain tops similar to that of the Sierra Nevada. Under future warming, core pika habitat in the MLNF could be become unsuitable for pika habitation, resulting in habitat fragmentation and a loss of connectivity that could result in reduced pika populations.

Quick Citation: Stewart, J.A., Wright, D.H., Heckman, K.A. 2017 Apparent climate-mediated loss and fragmentation of core habitat of the American pika in the Northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Plos One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181834

Research: Climate change will decrease soil water at deep soil depths 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article uses modeling to forecast changes to temperate drylands around the world under climate change. The models show that temperate drylands may decrease and deeper soil layers will become increasingly dry during the growing season, which will result in major shifts in vegetation and ecosystem services.
Implications to forest plan assessment:The MLNF is in an area considered within this research to be a temperate dryland. Reduced soil moisture at deep depths could alter the vegetation of the MLNF.

Quick Citation: Schlaepfer et al. 2017 Climate change reduces extent of temperate drylands and intensifies drought in deep soils. Nature Communications.

Research: The Southwestern monsoon will decrease under future climate change 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article investigates monsoon response to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations using a 50-km-resolution global climate model which features a realistic representation of the monsoon climatology and its variability. Previous models have sources of bias because the general circulation models do no accurately show the summertime low-level flow along the Gulf of California, which impacts the simulated precipitation in the Southwest. Because of this, local scale models have been used, but these models lack a way to connect with larger-scale circulation models resulting in more biases. Additionally, the sea surface temperature models are biased by anomalies in the North Atlantic, resulting in potentially inaccurate results showing excessive monsoonal precipitation in the fall. In this paper, the author’s tested how the sensitivity of the response of the North American monsoon to increased CO2 to the biases in the above models. The results, using an integrated and highly realistic representative model of the North American monsoon, when compared to previous models, suggest the possibility of a strong precipitation reduction in the northern edge of the monsoon in response to warming, with potential consequences for regional water resources, agriculture, and ecosystems.

Implications to forest plan assessment:
A reduction in the Southwestern monsoon would have large and detrimental effects on the MLNF. A reduced monsoon will lead to a reduction in water availability and a reduction in vegetation growth and ecosystem processes. These results strongly suggest that MLNF managers should limit grazing on the MLNF in order to preserve ecosystem integrity under future climate change.

Quick Citation: Pascale, S., Boos W. R., Bordoni, S., Delworth, T. L., Kapnick, S. B., Murakami, H., Vecchi, G. A., Zhang, W. 2017. Weakening of the North American monsoon with global warming. Nature Climate Change.

Research: plant respiration under future climate is higher than previously thought 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This article used global datasets and flux models to calculate plant respiration rates on a global scale. It estimates that respiration from the upper canopy of vegetation could be around 30% higher than existing models estimate. This means that vegetation may respire more carbon than it is able to hold. This increased respiration has the potential to feedback to increased CO2 in the atmosphere and increased global warming. The authors suggest that this feedback has the potential to increase the rate of biome changes.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
Managers at the Manti-La Sal need to prepared to manage forests that may shift in composition and structure under future climate.

Quick Citation: Huntingford et al. 2017. Implications of improved representations of plant respiration in a changing climate. Nature Communications.

No articles found.
Research: Loss of a single pollinator species reduces specialization of other pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Even the loss of a single pollinator species can reduce pollination

Quick Citation: Brosi BJ, HM Briggs. 2013. Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (32): 13044-13048.

Research: Honey bees compete w/ native pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Honeybees are in direct competition with native bees

Quick Citation: Cane JH, VJ Tepedino. 2016. Gauging the effect of honey bee pollen collection on native bee communities. Conservation Letters 0: 1-6.

Research: Honey bees pass their diseases to native bees and bumblebees 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Honeybees pass their diseases to native bees and bumblebees

Quick Citation: Fürst MA, DP McMahon, JL Osborne, RJ Paxton, and MJF Brown. 2014. Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature 506: 364-366.

Presidential Memo calls for conservation of pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Native pollinators are included in this Memorandum.

Quick Citation: Obama, B. 2014. Creating a Federal Strategy to Promote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators [Memorandum]. Washington, DC: The White House.

Research: In a Great Basin site, bee diversity was highest in pinyon-juniper; lowest in crested wheatgrass. 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Crested wheatgrass: less bee diversity; pinyon-juniper bee species diversity hightest at a Great Basin site

Quick Citation: Johnson RL. 2008. Impacts of habitat alterations and predispersal seed predation on the reproductive success of Great Basin forbs (Doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

Research: Once-yearly sampling of butterflies for 32 years of one site; 39% decline in species; took years to detect declines 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Manti-La Sal NF is likely experiencing pollinator declines as well.

Quick Citation: O’Brien JM, JH Thorne, ML Rosenzweig, AM Shapiro. 2011. Once-yearly sampling for the detection of trends in biodiversity: The case of Willow Slough, California. Biological Conservation 144(7): 2012-2019.

Research: Honey bees compete w/ bumblebees 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The purposeful placing of honey bee hives on MLSNF would reduce native bumblebees

Quick Citation: Thomson, D. 2016. Local bumblebee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources. Ecology Letters 19(10): 1247-1255

Overview: Brief Trust overview of documents submitted re: smooth brome 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

A key assessment issue: How widespread are smooth brome monocultures?

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Bromus Inermis: A Significant Assessment Issue.

Lit review: A class paper on iinvasive qualities of exotic smooth brome 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Smooth brome reduction of biodiversity largely irreversible.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Sue. 2016. The invasive qualities of smooth brome (Bromus inermis).

Research: Interim report on 2-yr study native and non-native, invasive grasses in White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Insight into where exotic grasses dominate and where native grasses are present in Ponderosa pine, aspen, and meadow communities on White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area (Monticello Ranger District)

Quick Citation: SMITH, Sue. White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area. rep. 2016.

Research: 40 years after cattle excluded, Kentucky bluegrass and smooth brome have persisted in Manitoba Canada 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

An assessment of where smooth brome dominates on MLSNF is essential; active restoration may be needed

Quick Citation: SINKINS, Peter A. and OTFINOWSKI, Rafael. Invasion or retreat? The fate of exotic invaders on the northern prairies, 40 years after cattle grazing. Plant Ecology. November 2012. Vol. 213, no. 8p. 1251–1262. DOI 10.1007/s11258-012-0083-8.

Monitoring: Rocky Mountain iris monoculture at a specific site, 2012-2016. 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Photos and transects read in 2012 and 2016 inside and outside a 16′ X 16′ vegetation cage in the La Sal Mts shows dominance by iris

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Oowah Bench.

Photos and Overview: Rocky Mountain Iris: A significant assessment issue 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

It will be important for the FS to assess the extent to which moist meadows and riparian areas in MLSNF have become iris monocultures

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Iris missouriensis: A Significant Assessment Issue.

Comment and Information Request Regarding Species of Conservation Concern on the MLSNF 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Trust letter to MLSNF: How many plants and animals will MLSNF recognize as species of conservation concern?

Quick Citation: O’BRIEN, Mary. Letter to Forest Plan Revision Team. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

USFS procedures for identifying species of conservation concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The technicalities of designating species of conservation concern: the Trust has requested those documents highlighted in yellow

Quick Citation: CUMMINS, Tiffany. 2016. Manti-La Sal National Forest Potential Species of Conservation Concern (SCC) Review Procedural Report. Manti- La Sal National Forest, Price, UT.

Assessment: Cottonwood Creek Spring; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced, not trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sofie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/28/2016. Cottonwood Creek Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Crandall Canyon Spring Complex: Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced, trampled

Quick Citation: DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, POPENOE, Abby, and ROLLINS, Emma. 09/28/2016. Crandall Canyon Spring Complex (#186) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Gentry Mountain Spring (#158); Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; Maintained; not trampled inside; heavy trampling outside

Quick Citation: SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah, LINDQUIST, Signe, FORD, Fields, and SMITH, Collin. 09/28/2016. Gentry Mountain Spring (#158) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Joe’s Valley Spring; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; light trampling

Quick Citation: DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, POPENOE, Abby, and ROLLINS, Emma. 09/28/2016. Joe’s Valley Spring (#239) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 177 : Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; heavy trampling outside

Quick Citation: CHAMPION, Amanda, AURICHIO, Maya, BAKER, Maggie, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/28/2016. Spring 177 Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Gentry Mountain Spring 181: Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah, LINDQUIST, Signe, FORD, Fields, and SMITH, Collin. 09/28/2016. Gentry Mountain Spring (#181) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 169; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, BUTLER, Grace, DEE, Gardner, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/28/2016. 169 Spring Conditions Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: North Point Spring:Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sofie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/28/2016. North Point Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 243; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; trampling outside

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, BUTLER, Grace, DEE, Gardner, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/28/2016. Spring 243 Conditions Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Hillside (Beaver Creek) Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: ROLLINS, Emma, DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, and POPENOE, Abby. 09/25/2016. Hillside (Beaver Creek) Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Coyote Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampling

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/25/2016. Coyote Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Deer Springs Complex: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; light trampling outside

Quick Citation: FORD, Fields, LINDQUIST, Signe, SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah. 09/25/2016. Deer Springs Complex Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Lackey Basin Spring:Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; most water diverted

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/25/2016. Lackey Basin Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment:Lower Pinhook Spring in the Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Large fenced exclosure; slightly not maintained; not trampled

Quick Citation: Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust. 09/23/2016. Lower Pinhook Spring Condition Assessment.

Assessment:Mason Draw Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. Mason Draw Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Pack Creek Spring; Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; not trampled

Quick Citation: CHAMPION, Amanda, BAKER, Maggie, AURICHIO, Maya, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/25/2016. Pack Creek Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: South Mesa Spring Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; not trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. South Mesa Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Webb Hollow Spring in the Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampling

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. Webb Hollow Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Potential MLSNF Species of Conservation Concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

As of November 10, 2016, MLSNF is rejecting 49 of the 53 recommended plant species of conservation concern proposed by the Regional Office (who is the final decisionmaker on this issue) and is rejecting 13 of 23 non-plant species of conservation concern recommended by the Regional Office. No data given for these rejections as of 11/10/2016.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. November 10, 2016. Species of Conservation Concern for Manti-La Sal NF:
RO and Manti-La Sal NF Recommendations.

Summary: Graphs and brief text summarizing assessment of 46 Manti-La Sal springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2016, staff, volunteers, and students briefly assessed the conditions at 46 springs on MLSNF: fencing, trampling, native vs. non-native grasses, etc. The fences at 13 of 30 fenced springs were not fully maintained; cattle/elk trampling was observed at 21 of 46 springs, and at 10 of 14 springs where fences were not being maintained.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Summary: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports. Unpublished report.

Assessment: 15 Elk Ridge Springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The conditions at 15 springs on Elk Ridge (Moab-Monticello RD) were briefly assessed June 27-29, 2016. Conditions noted included fencing, trampling, non-native vs. native grasses and other vegetation, presence of water, other species. The 15 springs are included in the summary document reviewing a total of 46 Manti-La Sal NF springs, “GCT: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports”

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, C., Erley, D., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Assessment: Fifteen Elk Ridge Springs, June 27-29, 2016.

Assessment: Eleven La Sal Mountain springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The conditions at 11 springs on La Sal Mountain (Moab-Monticello RD) were briefly assessed August 9-11, 2016. Conditions noted included fencing, trampling, non-native vs. native grasses and other vegetation, presence of water, other species. The eleven springs are included in the summary document reviewing a total of 46 Manti-La Sal NF springs, “GCT: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports”

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, C., Erley, D., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Assessments: Eleven La Sal Mountain Springs, August 9-11, 2016. Unpublished Grand Canyon Trust report.

Brief overview: Springs Assessments 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is a brief overview of the significance of springs and why the Trust has provided brief assessments of the conditions at 46 springs on the Manti-La Sal NF. The MLSNF needs to assess conditions of the springs on the MLSNF

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Springs: A Significant Assessment Issue re: loss of biodiversity

Research: Beaver as a tool for amphibian restoration 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Beaver create important habitat for amphibians and can be used as an amphibian monitoring tool.

Quick Citation: STEVENS, C, PASZKOWSKI, C and FOOTE, A. Beaver (Castor canadensis) as a surrogate species for conserving anuran amphibians on boreal streams in Alberta, Canada. Biological Conservation. 2007. Vol. 134, no. 1p. 1–13. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.07.017.

Data Summary: Exotic Mt Goats residing in Mount Peale Research Natural Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Most exotic Mountain Goats in the La Sal Mountains alpine area with GPS or VHS radio collars are focusing their time (eating, trampling, wallowing) in or near the Mount Peale Research Natural Area, which, by U.S. Forest Service national regulations and the Manti-La Sal 1986 forest plan is to be kept free of exotic species.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Summary: GPS- and VHS-Collar Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Datafor Which 2016 Data exist, as Provided to GCT on Mountain Goats in the La Sal Mountains 2014-June 2016.

Lit Review: Mountain Goat impacts in the West 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Exotic Mountain Goats have been placed in the alpine area of the La Sal Mountains and they are focusing their time within the Mount Peale Research Natural Area above 11,000′. This review of scientific literature and National Park Service and other reports shows that the small, sensitive alpine area in the La Sal Mountains will inevitably be degraded through mountain goat activity. The state plans for 200 goats to live round the year in this area.

Quick Citation: JONES, A., B. HANSEN, and M. MOYANO. 2015. Impacts of Non-native Mountain Goats in Introduction Areas of the West: A Review of the Literature. Unpublished review by Wild Utah Project. Unpublished report.

Field Report: Mountain Goat damage in La Sal Mountains 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2015, using a Forest Service impact monitoring method, Wild Utah Program staff and volunteers documented evidence of Mountain Goat damage in Mount Peale Research Natural Area. Not surprising, but devastating news for one of the very few alpine areas on the Colorado Plateau.

Quick Citation: WILD UTAH PROJECT. 2015. Alpine Vegetation Impact Assessment of the Mt. Peale Research Natural Area: 2015 Survey Report. Unpublished report. Salt Lake City UT: Wild Utah Project

Monitoring: 2015 Goat damage La Sal Mountains alpine area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2015, using a Forest Service method, Wild Utah Project staff and volunteers documented mountain goat damage in the Mount Peale Research Natural Area

Quick Citation: WILD UTAH PROJECT. 2015. Alpine Vegetation Impact Assessment of the Mt. Peale Research Natural Area: 2015 Survey Report. Salt Lake City, UT: Wild Utah Project

Monitoring: 2014: Goat damage La Sal Mountains alpine area 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Within a year of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources helicoptering 35 exotic mountain goats to the La Sal Mountains, [physical damage to the fragile alpine area was photographed by Whitman College students. This report includes photographs of the damage.

Quick Citation: SEMESTER IN THE WEST. 2014. Mountain Goat Physical Impacts in the la Sal Mountains Alpine Area, Including the Mount Peale Research Natural Area. Grand Canyon Trust unpublished report.

Maps: Mountain Goats are concentrating use on Mount Peale Research Natural Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Using Utah Division of Wildlife Resources data from GPS and VHF radio collar data on the exotic mountain goats September 2014-June 2016, it is clear that the goats are concentrating their use within the small, fragile Mount Peale Research Natural Area, 11,000-12,800′

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Mountain Goats are Concentrating Use on Mount Peale Research Natural Area:
Maps of Utah Division of Wildlife Resource Data 2014-June 2016 GIS and VHS Collar Data

Significant Issue: Aspen Recruitment 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

By July 2016, 180 young aspen had recruited (i.e., grown above 6′ tall), such that their leaders are beyond cattle browsing and most elk browsing. It was browsing alone that had prevented recruitment for decades at this site. Sprouts of persistent aspen (i.e., aspen stands in which conifer is not a significant presence) that are on low-gradient, open areas, are particularly vulnerable to excessive browsing and annual removal of the leading buds that are essential for growing tall.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2o16. Significant Issue: Ungulate Aspen Herbivory: Without and With Fencing; Boren Mesa, Brumley Ridge Allotment, Moab-Monticello District Manti-La Sal NF. Unpublished report.

Research: Most female elk use same (aspen) home range during summer 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This 2-yr Colorado Plateau study (NW Colorado) of elk show high fidelity of female elk to their summer range, which is often centered in aspen stands, thus posing a browsing threat to aspen sprouts. It implies that targeted hunts could reduce elk populations during critical times for aspen sprouts, e.g., post-fire. This would require the FS to coordinate with the state wildlife agency (in Utah, the Wildlife Board of the Utah Div. of Wildlife Resources)

Quick Citation: Brough, A.M., R.J. DeRose, M.M. Conner, and J.N. Long. 2017. Summer-fall home-range fidelity of female elk in northwestern Colorado: Implications for aspen management. Forest Ecology and Management 389:220–227.

Research: Comparison of ungrazed and grazed spring 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

While the study in this chapter was done in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, the fact that some springs in Manti-La Sal are protected or inaccessible to livestock, while others are accessible and heavily-used by livestock makes the differences noted in this chapter important for MLSNF. The study found a more diverse vegetation structure, less coverage by exotic species, and greater presence of predatory invertebrates in the ungrazed spring, among other differences. The chapter explains the significance of the differences as well as the differences.

Quick Citation: Perla, B.S. and L.E. Stevens. Biodiversity And Productivity At An Undisturbed Spring In Comparison With Adjacent Grazed Riparian And Upland Habitats. Chapter 11 in L.E. Stevens and V.J. Meretsky. Aridland Springs in North America.

Utah Native Plant Society recommends 34 + 20 plants as Species of Conservation Concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The USFS Regional Office (UT, NV, so. ID, and w. WY national forests) sent a list of 53 plants to the MLNF to consider for designation as “Species of Conservation Concern” (SCC) in their new forest plan. The MLNF responded that they recommend only two of the 51 species as SCC. In contrast, Utah Native Plant Society has recommended to the Regional Office that 34 of the 51 be designated as SCC, and 20 more the Regional Office didn’t even list. This document provides the UNPS reasoning overall and the ratioinale for each of their recommended plant species

Quick Citation: Utah Native Plant Society. 2017 Review of Manti-La Sal National Forest Speciesof Conservation Concern, February 20.

Research: global decline of bumblebees is phylogenetically structured 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Research examining an assembled database representing approximately 43% of the circa 260 globally known species, which included species extinction risk assessments following the International Union fo Conservation of Nature Red List categories and criteria, and information on species traits presumably associated with bumblebee decline. We quantified the strength of phylogenetic signal in decline, range size, tongue length and parasite presence. Overall, about one-third of the assessed bumblebees are declining and declining species are not randomly distributed across the Bombus phylogeny. Susceptible species were over-represented in the subgenus Thoracobombus (approx. 64%) and under-represented in the subgenus Pyrobombus (approx. 6%). Phylogenetic logistic regressions revealed that species with small geographical ranges and those in which none of three internal parasites were reported (i.e. Crithidia bombi, Nosema spp. or Locustacarus buchneri) were particularly vulnerable.

Quick Citation: Arbetman et al. 2017. Global decline of bumblebees is phylogenetically structured and inversely related to species range size and pathogen incidence. Proc. R. Soc. B 2017 284 20170204; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.0204

Research: woodlands: PJ dynamics are influenced by climate 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Research using aerial photography to determine PJ dynamics over 68 years in the Southwest. The research found that regional-scale climatic influences may be more important than land use legacies in controlling tree cover of these and perhaps other semiarid woodlands over longer time scales. These findings are notable given that similar episodes of tree mortality are projected in coming decades with climate change.

Quick Citation: Clifford M., Cobb, N., Buenemann, M. 2011. Long-Term Tree Cover Dynamics in a Pinyon-Juniper Woodland: Climate-Change-Type Drought Resets Successional Clock. Ecosystems. 14:6, 949

Research: woodlands:spatial variation in woodland expansions 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research uses aerial photography from 1966-1995 to examine spatial variation in pinyon-juniper encroachment in central Nevada. The research finds that increases in woodland area were several times greater where terrain variables indicated more mesic conditions. Management treatments involving removal of tress should be viewed in a long-term context, because tree invasion is likely to proceed rapidly on productive sites.

Quick Citation: Weisberg P., Lingua E., Pillai, R. 2007. Spatial Patterns of Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Expansion in Central Nevada. Rangeland Ecology & Management. 60:2, 115-124

Research: woodlands: invasive species can increase with some types of PJ treatment 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Field plots in northern Colorado were treated with different types of mechanical pinyon juniper removal in 2011. Response of annual plant species depended on mechanical treatment type and site. Rollerchopping had higher exotic annual grass cover than mastication or control and higher exotic annual forb cover than chaining or control. Rollerchopping was the only treatment to have higher native annual forb cover than control in the absence of seeding. Seeding increased native annual forb biomass in mastication compared with control. Seeding also increased shrub density, which had fewer shrubs pretreatment relative to other sites. Results suggest any type of mechanical removal of pinyon-juniper can increase understory plant biomass and cover. Seeding in conjunction with mechanical treatments, particularly mastication, can initially increase annual forb biomass and shrub density within the 2 year time frame of this experiment. However, different understory responses between sites suggests that pretreatment conditions are important for determining outcomes of pinyon-juniper removal treatments.

Quick Citation: Stephens G., Johnston, D., Jonas, J., Paschke M. 2016. Understory Responses to Mechanical Treatment of Pinyon-Juniper in Northwestern Colorado. Rangeland Ecology & Management. 69. 351-359.

Research: woodlands: treatments of PJ to increase understory can cause soil erosion 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Field research in southeastern Utah on Shay Mesa found that after the PJ removal treatments, After one growing season, understory plant cover was 4-5.5 times greater in hand-thinned treatments (lop & scatter pile burn), while understory cover in mastication treatments was 15 times greater following two growing seasons, compared to untreated controls. Bromus tectorum, an invasive annual grass, was present in all treated sites and absent from controls. Soil aggregate stability, an indicator of overall soil quality, was lower in the pile burn and mastication sites. Nitrogen fixation potential was low across all sites, but lowest in two treated sites (lop & scatter and mastication). This study suggests that different fuels reduction techniques generally have positive effects on total understory plant cover, but treatments that involve burning of slash materials may have more negative effects on site stability than alternative treatment options.

Quick Citation: Ross, M., Castle, S., Barger, N. 2012. Effects of fuels reducations on plant communities and soils in Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Journal of Arid Environments. 79. 84-92.

Research: woodlands:degraded conditions of PJ woodlands tend to be stable and difficult to restore 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Field research analyzing 10 years of understory plant community data in response to restoration treatments of PJ woodlands in northwestern Arizona found that thinning and scatting vegetation had very little influence on understory composition. The degraded PJ site was found to be very stable and resistant to efforts pushing it back into a more productive state. The site appears to have crossed a threshold that will be difficult for land managers to restore the system to a desired state.

Quick Citation: Huffman, D., Stoddard, M., Springer, J., Crouse, J. 2017. Understory Responses to Tree Thinning and Seeding Indicate Stability of Degraded Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands. Rangeland Ecology & Management.

Research: woodlands: pinyon juniper woodlands in some places are unable to return to a pre woodland state 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

Field work in northeastern Arizona mapping soil thickness, and tree-root exposure to measure long-term soil erosion rates, and data on tree mortality and establishment found that the ecotone between woodland and more xerophytic vegetation has apparently been shifting for centuries,with a reduction in woodland vegetation. The ongoing ecohydrological transitions in the more xeric aspects are in the process of transforming those hillslopes from smooth, curvilinear, soil-mantled, sediment transport-limited slopes to detachment-limited slopes characterized by an expanding area of bare bedrock steps and cliffs, and this transition is probably irreversible. Predicted temperature increases over the next century for the region are comparable to the present-day soil temperature differential on xeric vs. mesic aspects at the site. Soil temperature is the principaldriver of soil water evapotranspirative losses, and because of the interdependent linkages between soil temperature, soil moisture, weathering, production and retention of soil, vegetation, and hydrological response, relatively small temperature increases will likely accelerate the ongoing environmental changes in this and similar areas.

Quick Citation: McAuliffe et al. 2014. Non-equilibrium hillslope dynamics and irreversible landscape changes at a shifting pinyon-juniper woodland ecotone. Global and Planetary Change. 122. 1-13

Research: Pinyon die-off in drought 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

A quantification of regional-scale vegetation die-off across southwestern North American woodlands in 2002–2003 in response to drought and associated bark beetle infestations. After 15 months of depleted soil water content, >90% of the dominant, overstory tree species (Pinus edulis, a piňon) died.Future production of pinyon nuts, an important food source for several species of birds and small mammals and for local people (28), is expected to be greatly reduced over an extensive area. …If temperatures continue to warm, vegetation die-off in response to future drought may be further amplified.

Quick Citation: Breshears, DD, NSCobb, PM Rich, KP Price, CD Allen, RG Balice, WH Rommei,JH Kastens, ML Floyd, J Belnapl, JJ Anderson, OB Myers, and CW Meyer. 2005.Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(42): 15144–15148.

Research: Pinyon doesn’t recover after pinyon-juniper treatments 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

An examination of the long-term (20–40 year) effects of past tree-reduction treatments on vegetation and ground cover in piñon–juniper woodlands, Tree-reduction treatments were conducted between 1963 and 1988 in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah by the BLM and involved chaining followed by seeding to remove trees and often shrubs. Treated areas had significantly less Pinus edulis (piñon pine) recruitment compared to untreated areas, while there was no change in Juniperus osteosperma (Utah juniper) recruitment. These results indicate that treated areas may become more juniper-dominated in the future due to increased establishment of juniper compared to pinyon pine.Unlike J. osteosperma, P. edulis regeneration may be negatively affected by chaining treatments, and consequently, treated woodlands may become increasingly J. osteosperma dominated.Our results suggest that the chaining and seeding treatment method may result in an increase in J. osteosperma dominance, which could negatively impact wildlife and communities that rely on P. edulis for forage, fuel wood, and habitat (Brown et al., 2001). Additionally, there has been high drought-related mortality of P. edulis in certain areas across its range since 2002 (Breshears et al., 2005; Clifford et al., 2011), especially among reproductively mature trees (Floyd et al., 2009). There have also been recent declines in P. edulis cone production associated with increasing temperatures (Redmond et al., 2012). Thus, both recent mortality and decreased reproduction could further reduce P. edulis as a co-dominant in P–J woodlands.

Quick Citation: Redmond, MD, NS Cobb, ME Miller, NN Barger. 2013 Long-term effects of chaining treatments on vegetation structure in piñon–juniper woodlands of the Colorado Plateau. Forest Ecology and Management 305: 120–128

Research: Following drought, there are greater losses of pinyon than juniper 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Research on the impact of droughts on the co-dominant tree species of the
pinyon–juniper woodland (Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma) following both droughts was 6.5-fold higher than juniper mortality. In addition, large pinyons suffered 2–6-fold greater mortality than small pinyons. Pinyon–juniper woodlands are becoming dominated by juniper.

Sites that experienced high pinyon mortality during the first drought suffered additional mortality during the second drought. Such repeated mortality events also suggest that these stands may suffer chronic stresses. Because approximately 1000 species are associated with pinyon pine, the shift in the structure of these woodlands has large-scale community consequences.

Quick Citation: Mueller, RC, CM Scudder, ME Porter, RT Trotter III, CA. Gehring and TG Whitham. 2005. Tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. J. of Ecology 93, 1085–1093

Review: The status of North American and Hawaiian native bees 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

This review paper examined the status of native bees of North America and Hawaii. The review found that of all the species with sufficient data to assess, more than half were declining, and species without sufficient population data were also likely declining. Additionally, nearly 1 in 4 species was imperiled and at increased risk of extinction. The review found that the main causes of declines are agriculture intensification, climate change, and urbanization.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The MLNF are home to native bees which, based on this study, are likely imperiled. Loosing native bees has implications for the vital functional roles that these native bees play in the MLNF ecosystem.

Quick Citation: Kopec, K. 2017. A systematic status review of North American and Hawaiian native bees. Center for Biological Diversity

Research: Habitat loss has a negative impact on wild bee abundance and richness 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

This meta-analysis examined 54 published studies examining the effects of human disturbance (such as habitat loss, grazing, logging, and agriculture) on wild bee populations. They found a significant negative effect of human disturbance on the abundance and species richness of wild, unmanaged bees, however the magnitude of this effect was not large and was statistically significant only in systems that had extreme habitat loss. The response of bee abundance and richness to disturbance was found to vary among disturbance types, with habitat loss resulting in the most overall loss of abundance and richness. They conclude that because pollinators are negatively effected by human land use, and increasing land-use change is predicted to increase in the future, continued loss of pollinators seems likely.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The Manti-La Sal has wild bee populations, and management decisions can include reducing habitat loss for wild bees to ensure their species abundance and richness into the future.

Quick Citation: Winfree R., Aguilar R., Vazquez, P., LeBuhn, G., Aizen, M. 2009. A meta-analysis of bees’ responses to anthropogenic disturbance. Ecology. 2068-2076, 90(8).

Review: the economic value of ecological services provided by insects 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

This review article looks at the ecological services provided by wild insects. These services include dung burial, pest control, pollination, and wildlife nutrition. The review estimated that these ecological services amount to at least $57 billion in the United States.

Implications to forest plan assessment:
Because of the large ecological and economic benefits of wild insects, management actions of the MLNF should ensure the diverse habitats necessary for diverse wild insect populations remain intact or are restored.

Quick Citation: Losey J., Vaughan M.2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience. 311-323, 56(4).

Insect biomass loss through time is greater than previously reported 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research examines aerial insect biomass between 1989 and 2016 across multiple locations in Germany. The researchers compared the observed decline in insect biomass with other factors, such as weather, habitat, and land-use variables. The results showed that the biomass of aerial insects decreased from 1989 to 2016. These results are in parallel with declines in other taxa, such as butterflies, wild bees, and moths. However, the decline in aerial insects was not correlated with habitat change or climate change, suggesting other large-scale factors are involved with the decline. Suggestions for the cause of this decline include agricultural practices and pesticide impacts or unmeasured and unanticipated climate variables, such as prolonged drought or lack of sunshine in low temperatures. Despite the cause, this decline in insect biomass is larger than previously reported, with the potential for large cascading effects up food chains and throughout ecosystems.

Implications for MLNF:
The MLNF is home to many different insect species which are likely declining in biomass through time. Management actions should reduce practices that could lead to insect loss and conserve insect habitat in order to ensure healthy food chains in the MLNF.

Quick Citation: Hallmann C. et al. 2017. More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas. Plos One.

Pollinators can be affected at small to large scales; long-term monitoring is needed 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Need to consider small to large scale global warming impacts on pollinators

Quick Citation: Brantley SL, PL Ford. 2012. Climate Change and Arthropods: Pollinators, Herbivores, and Others: 35-47 in Climate Change in Grasslands, Shrublands, and Deserts of the Interior American West: A Review and Needs Assessment. Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Review article: Native solitary bees are important 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Native solitary bees are efficient pollinators

Quick Citation: Laursen L. 2015. Lone rangers: Solitary bees receive scant attention, but research shows that they are vital pollinators of crops and wild habitats. Nature Outlook 521(7552): 62-63.

Map: Existing Beaver Dam Capacity on Streams in Utah 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Maximum dam density color-coded on the MLSNF.

Quick Citation: AUMANN, Emily. Existing Beaver Dam Capacity. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Map: Streams with potential for beaver restoration, Ferron-Price and Sanpete ranger districts 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Map shows streams color-coded by potential for beaver restoration.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Stephanie. Manti La-Sal National Forest Ideal Streams for Beaver Restoration, Map 1 of 2. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Map: Streams with potential for beaver restoration, Moab-Monticello ranger district 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Map shows streams color-coded by potential for beaver restoration.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Stephanie. Manti La-Sal National Forest Ideal Streams for Beaver Restoration, Map 2 of 2. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Advice: Beaver Restoration Guidebook 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Guide for working with beaver in restoration of streams, wetlands, and floodplains.

Quick Citation: CASTRO, Janine, POLLOCK, Michael, JORDAN, Chris, LEWALLEN, Gregory, and WOODRUFF, Kent. 2015. The Beaver Restoration Guidebook. US Fish and Wildlife Services, NOAA, Portland State University, and the USFS. Version 1.0.

Report: Utah Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool 🌐
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Details of the Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (used in maps in this repository) and its use.

Quick Citation: MACFARLANE, William, WHEATON, Joseph, and JENSEN, Martha. 2014. The Utah Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool: A Decision Support and Planning Tool. Ecogeomorphology and Topographic Analysis Lab, Utah State University, Prepared for Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Logan, Utah, 135 pp. Available at: http://etal.usu.edu/BRAT/

Overview: Brief Trust overview of documents submitted re: beaver 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This document indicates the documents that have been sent to the Manti-La Sal NF; including maps of those MLSNF streams with the capacity to support dam-building beaver, those streams that have not only the capacity but likely current suitable conditions for beaver; how such maps have been made (Riparian Condition Assessment Tool, Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool), a comprehensive guidebook by the US Fish and Wildlife Service re: the value and management of beaver, and research on beaver and boreal toads (a Utah sensitive species).

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Manti-La Sal NF Forest Plan Revision Assessment Information: Beaver: A focal species for sure

Review: Shrub encroachment may not lead to degradation and removing shrubs may not lead to better ecosystem 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Kristina Young

This review paper of eastern Australian shrublands examined if there was evidence to suggest that shrub encroachment leads to declines in ecosystem functions. The review found that shrub effects on ecosystems are strongly scale-, and species- and environment-dependent and therefore no standard management plan should be applied across ecosystems. In addition, they found overgrazing dampens the generally positive effect of shrubs, leading to misleading assumption that encroachment is causing degradation. Finally, they found there has been no rigorous assessment of long-term effectiveness of shrub removal and no evidence that remove improves land condition.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
Shrub encroachment is occurring on the MLNF. This review suggests that a one size fits all approach to removing shrubs from encroached areas does not improve ecosystem function. Additionally, costly shrub removal may not actually improve land conditions.

Quick Citation: Eldridge, D.J., & Soliveres, S. 2014. Are shrubs really a sign of declining ecosystem function? Disentangling the myths and truths of woody encroachment in Australia. Australian Journal of Botany. 62:594-608

Advice: How to assess native bee habitat 🌐
Monitoring • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Has the MLSNF attempted habitat assessment for native bees?

Quick Citation: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. 2011. Native Bee Conservation Pollinator Habitat Assessment Form and Guide.

Research: Year-to-year variation of pollinators can be high; small distances (e.g., 25m) can mean different pollinators 💾
Monitoring • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Monitoring of pollinators is difficult: year-to-year variation can be high

Quick Citation: Herrera, CM. 1988. Variation in mutualisms: the spatiotemporal mosaic of a pollinator assemblage. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 35: 95-125

Exotic Mountain Goat damage increasing at X of 6 sites 💾
Monitoring • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The impacts of introduced mountain goats in the Mount Peale Research Natural Area, of the La Sal
Mountains, were assessed by revisiting six sites that had initially been surveyed in 2015 by Wild Utah
Project. Negative impacts of mountain goats were observed in the 2017 field surveys by Grand Canyon
Trust, including bare ground (wallows, trails, trampling, etc.), broken alpine turf, browsed plants and soil
erosion. In most cases the rare plants continue to be present at the sites where they were observed in
2015. There was evidence of goat activity (fur and droppings) around the rare plants, which
is cause for concern. For each of the six sites the condition class either stayed the same or declined from
2015 to 2017. t
The pattern of condition class decline, the field notes from the two sampling periods and the evidence on the ground point to deterioration in the condition of the sites as a result of mountain goats.

Quick Citation: Coles-Ritchie. 2017. The impacts of introduced mountain goats in the Mount Peale Research Natural Area. Unpublished Report. Grand Canyon Trust.

Research: Livestock grazing reduces native pollinators 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing shown to reduce native pollinators

Quick Citation: Debano SJ. 2006. Effects of livestock grazing on aboveground insect communities in semi-arid grasslands of southeastern Arizona. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:2547–2564.

Research: Bumblebee species richness down with livestock grazing; up with forb species richness 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing reduces bumblebee species richness

Quick Citation: Hatfield RG, G Lebuhn. 2007. Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblage of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in montane meadows. Biological Conservation 139 (2007): 150-158.

Research: An experimental study of one forb of the pea family shows 4 ways sheep grazing can negatively affect the pollinators 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Pollinators/nests can be trampled by livestock, as well as losing their flowers to consumption.

Quick Citation: Sugden, EA. 1985. Pollinators of Astragalus monoensis barneby (fabacae): New host records; potential impact of sheep grazing. The Great Basin Naturalist 45(2): 299-312.

Significant Issue: Annual, Heavy Livestock Grazing During Similar Times in the Growing Season 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance of the Trust documents summarizing MLSNF data on pasture on/off dates over the past ten years.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Annual, Heavy Livestock Grazing During Similar Times in the Growing Season.

Explanation: When a poor grazing rotation score isn’t really bad 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

To be read in conjunction with three graphs: BARTON-RUSSELL and BARTH 2016a, 2016b, and 2016c

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. When a bad score isn’t really bad: an explanation. Grand Canyon Trust.

Chart: which Manti La Sal National Forest pastures have had any rest in ten years 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In the past 10 years (2007-2016), 70% of the pastures in the Manti-La Sal National Forest received no documented rest years

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. Grazing and Resting of Pastures: La Sal National Forest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Charts showing pature rotation on Bald Mesa Allotment 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

An example of the on-off dates for the pastures on one MLSNF allotment for 10 years (such a chart is available from the Trust on reaqest for the 435 pastures on the MLSNF 2007-2016)

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Pasture rotation charts for Bald Mesa.

Charts showing how frequently MLSNF pastures were rested, 2007-2016 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Twelve allotments on MLSNF have allowed for rest every 2-4 years during the past ten years

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. 2016. MLSNF Pastures With Regular Rest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Ferron-Price, 2007-2016 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction.

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016a. Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Ferron Price District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Moab-Monticello District, 2007-2017 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL, Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016b . Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Moab-Monticello District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Sanpete District, 2007-2017 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction.

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL, Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016c. Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Sanpete District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Report of a statewide consensus collaboration on what sustainable grazing would be on the U.S. Forest Service Lands in Southern Utah 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

These recommendations, e.g., for a variety of grazing arrangements and participation of diverse stakeholders in grazing management considerations are useful. Diverse stakeholders arrived at consensus on these

Quick Citation: STRAUBE, Michelle and BELTON, Lorien. 2012. Collaborative Group on Sustainable Grazing for U.S. Forest Service Lands in Southern Utah: Final Report and Consensus Recommendations.

Assessment Issue: >20% Slope is Seldom Used by Cattle 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance of documents the Trust submitted showing that cattle rarely use slopes over 20% steep, and yet the FS calculates capacity as if forage on slopes up to 30% is being used

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Significant Issue: <20% slope seldom used by cattle.

Research: Slope Use by Cattle, Feral Horses, Deer, and Bighorn Sheep. 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle use slopes of 20%-29% about 3% of their time.

Quick Citation: GANSKOPP, David and VAVRA, Martin. Slope Use by Cattle, Feral Horses, Deer, and Bighorn Sheep. Northwest Science. 1987. Vol. 61, no. 2p. 74–81.

Use of Slopes by Cattle in Rugged Terrain 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle spent 70%-82% of their time on slopes 0-9% slope; 3-5% of their time on slopes 20%-29%.

Quick Citation: GANSKOPP, David and VAVRA, Martin. 1984. Use of Slopes by Cattle in Rugged Terain. Oregon State University, Agricultural Experiment Station.

Research: Livestock use of slopes 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle seldom use areas with greater than 10% slope

Quick Citation: LYONS, Robert K and MACHEN, Richard V. Livestock Grazing Distribution: Considerations and Management. Texas Cooperative Extension. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 2001.

Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle grazing focuses on a minority of acreage

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016a. Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District.

Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNFL: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing focuses on a minority of acreage; sheep are not supposed to use steep slopes due to erosion

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016b. Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF:Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts

Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF:Moab-Monticello District 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle grazing focuses on a minority of acreage.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016c. Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District.

Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing focuses on a minority of acreage; sheep are not supposed to use steep slopes due to erosion.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016d. Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts.

Analysis: Vegetation and Slope in Allotments of the MLSNF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Excel sheet showing percent of vegetation type in 0-10% and 11%-20% slope on MLSNF allotments.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2014. Manti La Sal Slope Vegetation Analysis.

Graph of vegetation on 0-20% slopes in the MLSNF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Bar charts showing which MLSNF allotments have which vegetation types within 0%-10% and 115-20% slope

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Graph of vegetation on 0-20% slopes.

Research: Beef Cattle Distribution Patterns on Foothiss Range 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle on a WY allotment concentrated 70% of use on slopes below 7% slope.

Quick Citation: PINCHAK, William E., SMITH, Michael A., HART, Richard H. and WAGGONER, James W. Beef Cattle Distribution Patterns on Foothill Range. Journal of Range Management. 1991. Vol. 44, no. 3p. 267. DOI 10.2307/4002956.

Unpublished review of how livestock weights have increased and the implications for forage consumption 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock are bigger than they used to be (and therefore consume more MLSNF vegetation); the numbers of permitted livestock mostly remain the same. So far the FS/BLM are not taking this into consideration

Quick Citation: CARTER, John. 2016. Updating the Animal Unit Month.

Photos: 305 photos of livestock-related resource concerns on the Manti-La Sal NF. 🌐
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

These photos of various resource concerns associated with livestock grazing illustrate the resource concerns the Forest Service noted in its 2014 document, “Initial Review of Livestock Grazing Effects on Select Ecosystems of the Dixie, Fishlake, and Manti La Sal National Forests.” The Initial Review focused on 30 resource concerns in five habitats, but the photos in this Grand Canyon Trust document include some photos of additional resource concerns in additional habitats as well

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. An Illustration of Forest Service Resource Concerns:Photos on Manti-La Sal NF.

USFS specialists’ reports of resource concerns associated with livestock grazing on Manti-La Sal, Dixie, and Fishlake NF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is an important document in which the Forest Service, in 2014, acknowledged some 30 resource concerns on the Manti-La Sal, Dixie, and Fishlake NF that are associated with livestock grazing in five habitats: Riparian and aquatic; lakes, ponds, springs and wetlands; sagebrush; aspen; and physical stream channel habitats.

Quick Citation: US Forest Service 2014.Initial Review of Livestock Grazing Effects on Select Ecosystems of the Dixie, Fishlake and Manti-La Sal National Forests

Brief overview:Livestock-related resource concerns noted by the FS are widespread 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2014 the Forest Service noted resource concerns associated with livestock grazing. The Trust has submitted 305 photos illustrating such resource concerns on Manti-La Sal NF. This is a significant assessment issue for the MLSNF forest plan revision.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Manti-La Sal NF Forest Plan Revision Assessment Information:The livestock-related resource concerns noted by the Forest Service are widespread on the Manti-La Sal NF and ecologically significant

Grazing stress on plants is additive to drought 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This study of crabs that graze salt marsh grass in China is an example of how grazers add to plant stress both during and after drought. Where the grazing crabs were excluded, drought only moderately affected the salt marsh grasses; mortality during and after the drought was high with the grazers present.

Quick Citation: He, Q., B.R. Silliman, Z. Liu, an B. Cui. 2017. Natural enemies govern ecosystem resilience in the face of extreme droughts. Ecology Letters 20 (2), 194-201

Biodiversity & productivity at a grazed and protected springs in Grand Staircase-Escalante 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

While the study in this chapter was done in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, the fact that some springs in Manti-La Sal are protected or inaccessible to livestock, while others are accessible and heavily-used by livestock makes the differences noted in this chapter important for MLSNF. The study found a more diverse vegetation structure, less coverage by exotic species, and greater presence of predatory invertebrates in the ungrazed spring, among other differences. The chapter explains the significance of the differences as well as the differences.

Implications for forest plan assessment: If the MLSNF is not sure that the same differences hold for MLSNF grazed/ungrazed springs, then the forest should assume this is the case in its forest assessment absent MLNF information to the contrary.

Quick Citation: Perla, B.S. and Stevens. 2008. Biodiversity and Productivity at an Undisturbed Spring in Comparison with Adjacent Grazed Riparian and Upland Habitats. Chapter 11 in L.E. Stevens and V.J. Meretsky. Aridland Springs in North America. Tucson, AZ: Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum

Research: high elk fidelity to summers ranges posing a browsing threat to aspen 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

This 2-yr Colorado Plateau study (NW Colorado) finds female elk demonstrate high fidelity to their summer range, which is often centered in aspen stands, thus posing a browsing threat to aspen sprouts. It implies that targeted hunts could reduce elk populations during critical times for aspen sprouts, e.g., post-fire.
Implications for forest plan assessment: The EIS needs to map the overlap of summer elk pastures with aspen (persistent and seral) as well as slope. Those slopes below 15% and hosting high or moderate populations of elk should be regarded as at risk of excessive aspen browing.
As for forest management, targeted hunts would require the MLNF to coordinate with the Wildlife Board of the Utah Div. of Wildlife Resources. (An example of such collaboration is with the Richfield Ranger District (Fishlake NF), UDWR, and the Monroe Mountain Working Group, which has led to an EIS and ROD that provide for quantitative thresholds for browse of aspen.

Quick Citation: Brough, A.M., R.J. DeRose, M.M. Conner, and J.N. Long. 2017. Summer-fall home-range fidelity of female elk in northwestern Colorado: Implications for aspen management. Forest Ecology and Management 389:220–227.

Bunchgrass and biocrusts limit cheatgrass 🌐 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Authors studied factors favoring or limiting cheatgrass at 75 sagebrush sites and document that bunchgrass communities and biological soil crust help limit dominance of cheatgrass. The authors note that limiting cumulative livestock grazing can favor high bunchgrass cover and diversity, and biological soil crust.

Quick Citation: Reisner, MD, JE Grace2, DA. Pyke3 and PS Doescher. 2013. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology 50(4):” 1039-1049

Research: 9-year study in SE Utah showing much greater sediment losses in grazed versus ungrazed sites. 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

A 9-year study of two currently ungrazed sites, and two currently grazed sites. During years with average and above-average precipitation, the disturbed sites consistently produced 2.8 times more sediment thanthe currently undisturbed sites. The never grazed site always produced the least sediment of all the sites.During the drought years, we observed a 5600-fold increase in sediment production from the most disturbed site (dominated by annual grasses, plowed about 50 years previously and currently grazed by livestock) relative to the never grazed site dominated by perennial grasses and well-developed biocrusts. Biocrusts were most important in predicting site stability, followed by perennial plant cover;

Quick Citation: Belnap, J, RL Reynolds, MC Reheis, SL Phillips, FE Urban, and HL Goldstein. 2009. Sediment losses and gains across a gradient of livestock grazing and plant invasion in a cool, semi-arid grassland, Colorado Plateau, USA. Aeolian Research 1: 27–43.

Research: grazing dampens the positive influence of shrubs on ecosystem functions 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article looks at an experiment examining the relative effects of changes in shrub cover and grazing rate on ecosystem functions at sites with two different soil textures and different levels of shrub cover and grazing in eastern Australia. The results found that the shrub cover, which was considered encroachment, was generally associated with an increase (or no change) in ecosystem function or ecosystem structure when compared to a healthy ecosystem. Instead the study found that the positive influence of shrubs was dampened by grazing, but only on specific soil types. This study finds that managing grazing rates is a better strategy than focusing on shrub removal.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The MLNF currently has both grazing and shrub encroachment. This study suggests that by focusing more on reducing grazing numbers instead of focusing on expensive shrub removal treatments, the MLNF could have increased ecosystem functioning.

Quick Citation: Eldridge, D.J., Soliveres, S., Bowker, M.A., Val, J. 2013. Grazing dampens the positive effects of shrub encroachment on ecosystem functions in a semi-arid woodland. Journal of Applied Ecology. 50:1028-1038

Research: Rotational grazing can not over effects of overstocking 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research article compares a deferred rotation schedule and pasture arrangement
in northeastern Utah. Data was collected 4 years prior and 4 years after implementation of upland water and deferred rotation grazing system. The study found that as a result of the management change, post-grazing riparian stubble heights decreased; bank alteration was unchanged; upland residual grasses were reduced; there was no change in residual herbaceous vegetation in the riparian zone; and utilization remained excessive in both upland and riparian areas. The authors conclude that rotation grazing can not overcome the effects of overstocking in arid and semi-arid systems. Additionally, upland water developments and supplements do not overcome the propensity of cattle to linger in riparian areas, which results in overgrazing and stream damage and does not allow damaged system recovery. The main conclusion was that t grazing systems showed limited or no benefit in arid systems, while rest and deferment were not sufficient to overcome the effects of periodic heavy use on primary forage plants. In both the semi-arid and desert range types, rotational grazing system generally showed no advantage over continuous or season-long grazing. Across multiple studies, stocking rates are the most consistent variable influencing vegetation response.
. The authors suggest the following ways to improve conditions: setting stocking rates based on currently available preferred forage species and todays consumption rates of livestock; enforce utilization rates of less than 30% in upland and riparian areas; enforce riparian stubble heights of >15.2 cm across the aquatic influence zone and floodplain; enforce bank alteration levels of <20%; use riders to limit riparian use and distribute livestock; provide rest, not deferment, so that sensitive native grasses recover vigor and productivity prior to being grazed again.

Implications for forest plan assessment:
The MLNF has sensitive riparian areas and active grazing. Based on this study, the MLNF should limit grazing numbers and rest areas, rather than deferring them, to ensure ecosystem recovery.

Quick Citation: Carter, J., Caltin, J.C., Hurwitz, N., Jones, A.L., Ratner, J. 2017. Upland Water and Deferred Rotation Effects on Cattle Use in Riparian and Upland Areas. Society for Range Management.

No articles found.
Research: ecology recovery after well pad reclamation differs with climate and land ownership 🌐
Multiple use: Oil and gas • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study used remote sensing to measure how effectively well pad reclamation efforts worked. It found that well-pads in grassland, blackbrush shrublands, arid canyon complexes, warmer areas with more summer-dominated precipitation, and state administered areas had low recovery rates.

Quick Citation: Nauman, TW. Duniway MC. Villarreal, ML. Poitras TB. 2017. Disturbance automated reference toolset (DART): Assessing patterns in ecological recovery from energy development on the Colorado Plateau. Science of Total Environment. 476-488. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.034

No articles found.
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Mapping: Riparian vegetation can be used to indicate riparian area conditions on a large scale 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Most Utah watersheds show significant to large departure from historic conditions.

Quick Citation: MACFARLANE, William W., GILBERT, Jordan T., JENSEN, Martha L., GILBERT, Joshua D., HOUGH-SNEE, Nate, MCHUGH, Peter A., WHEATON, Joseph M. and BENNETT, Stephen N. Riparian vegetation as an indicator of riparian condition: Detecting departures from historic condition across the North American West. Journal of Environmental Management. 26 October 2016. P. 1–14. DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.054.

Map: Riparian conditions assessments of the MLSNF 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Riparian area health color coded across the National Forest.

Quick Citation: BAKER, Maggie. Riparian Condition Assessment Manti La-Sal Districts. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Maps: MLSNF Riparian Conditions 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Bethany Llewellyn

Maps show conditions of riparian areas, including vegetation and recovery potential, departure from historic riparian vegetation, and type of riparian vegetation conversion in the MLSNF and surrounding areas.

Quick Citation: LLEWELLYN, Bethany. 2016. MLSNF R-CAT Maps. Grand Canyon Trust. Maps by WHEATON, Joe, Utah State University.

Analysis: Agriculture in MLSFN Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of Agriculture in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Agriculture, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Federal Land Payments in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of federal land payments in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Federal Land Payments, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Government Employment in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of government employment in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Government Employment, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Land Use in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of land use in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Land Use, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Socioeconomics in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Socioeconomic measures in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Socioeconomic Measures, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economics of mining, Including Oil and Gas, in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of mining, oil, and gas in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Mining, Including Oil and Gas, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economic Summary, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Summary of economics in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Summary Profile, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economics of Travel and Tourism Industries, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of travel and tourism industries in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Industries that Include Travel and Tourism, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Development and the Wildland-Urban Interface, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Development and the wildland-urban interface in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Development and the Wildland-Urban Interface, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

No articles found.
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New Policies for Old Trees: Averting a Global Crisis in a Keystone Ecological Structure. 💾
Timber • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Ecological roles of old trees; a life stage (rather than a species) that can go functionally extinct in a landscape

Quick Citation: LINDENMAYER, David B., LAURANCE, William F., FRANKLIN, Jerry F., LIKENS, Gene E., BANKS, Sam C., BLANCHARD, Wade, GIBBONS, Philip, IKIN, Karen, BLAIR, David, MCBURNEY, Lachlan, MANNING, Adrian D. and STEIN, John A.r. New Policies for Old Trees: Averting a Global Crisis in a Keystone Ecological Structure. Conservation Letters. 2013. Vol. 7, no. 1p. 61–69. DOI 10.1111/conl.12013.

The significant issue of old trees and the key roles they play in ecological communities 💾
Timber • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance for MLSNF of the Lindenmayer et al. perspective/science of the value of old trees

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Old Trees: A Significant Assessment Issue.

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