640px-fall_aspen_trees_in_the_la_sal_mountainsCreating a Conservation Alternative
for the Manti-La Sal National Forest

Welcome to a literature repository for the upcoming Manti-La Sal National Forest planning process. With your help, we are building a conservation minded alternative to offer a vision for the MLSNF. This plan will observe all the best available science, emphasizing local landscape level conservation, wildlife and wild lands protections,, all while being sensitive to the big picture of global climate and meeting the legal expectations of the forest to provide timber and grazing in the most responsible possible way. We believe firmly that all these values can be considered together with science and long-view thinking as a basis for a multiple use forest that is managed to respect living communities the world over.

This repository is organized into topics that are mandated by the 2012 Forest Planning rule from the US Forest Service. For more information about the rule and forest planning, you can read the Forest Service description of the rule on their website. To view the articles which are already being incorporated in the working draft, click  on ‘List of Literature’ above. 

Submitting Articles

If you wish to submit recent and relevant scientific literature to the alternative, please do! Click on the ‘Add a Resource’ tab above, and please fill out all the fields. If the resource is behind a paywall, or may not be accessible online, please upload a PDF or other easy to read format of the full scientific paper. Please write a short but descriptive note of why you want this included, and how you think the knowledge in the resource can be applied. Please do not add resources because you think they may be interesting but you have not read them; it is your help finding and pre-screening articles to see where they fit into an alternative that will make this repository useful!

Please also generate a valid citation for your resource in ISO-690 format and paste it into the ‘Quick Citation’ field of the form. You can do this with help from websites such as the citation machine. Accurate citations will help us to speedily compile a bibliography, and also can help us locate a resource if a web link dies or a file is corrupted. 

Example Citations Generate a Citation

 Collaborators

If you have a username and password to work on this project as a collaborator, you can click on the ‘Collaborators’ tab above to get started. If you would like information on becoming a core collaborator, please contact Mary O’Brien at maryobrien10@gmail.com.

Literature Repository

Below are all of the submitted resources for this project. Topic names are followed by the amount of documents filed in them. Click on a topic to show/hide its documents.


There are 133 articles and resources in the repository!

No articles found.
Advice: Six key points for conserving pollinators amid grazing 🌐
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Grazed lands and pollinators; 6 key points for managing grazing to provide for pollinators.

Quick Citation: BLACK, Scott Hoffman, SHEPHERD, Matthew and VAUGHAN, Mace. Rangeland Management for Pollinators. Rangelands. 2011. Vol. 33, no. 3p. 9–13.

Advice: Pollinators in natural habitat; particular concerns about grazing during the spring and summer 🌐
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Concerns about grazing during the spring and during the summer.

Quick Citation: BLACK, Scott Hoffman, HODGES, Nathan, VAUGHAN, Mace, and SHEPHERD, Matthew. 2007. Pollinators in Natural Areas: A Primer on Habitat Management. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.

Advice: Native plants for pollinators 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Advice for management of pollinators on public lands

Quick Citation: Ley EL, S Buchmann, L Stritch, and G Soltz. Public lands: 14 in Selecting Plants for Pollinators: A Regional Guide for Farmers, Land Managers and Gardeners in the Intermountain Semidesert and Desert Province. San Francisco, CA: The Pollinator Partnership and NAPPC.

Draft BMPs for better conserving native pollinators -everything from assessment to protection to restoration 💾
Best management practices • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Essential BMPs for bringing pollinators into focus for the first time on national forest lands

Quick Citation: United State Department of Agriculture. 2015. Pollinator-Friendly Best Management Practices for Federal Lands. USDA, Washington, D.C.

Remote anaylsis showing drying of vegetation on MLSNF over 25 years 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Essential MLSNF assessment: Drying of vegetation on MLSNF due to global warming

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, Cerissa. 2016. Change in Vegetation Productivity for Three National Forests in Utah, 1986-2011: Dixie, Fishlake, and Manti-La Sal National Forests. Grand Canyon Trust.

Report on projected changes in temperature and precipitation for MLSNF counties 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Bethany Llewellyn

While precipitation is projected to remain at similar levels, rising temperatures may cause drought conditions.

Quick Citation: LLEWELLYN, Bethany. 2016. Trends in Temperature and Precipitation for Counties in the Manti-La Sal National Forest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Climate Change Annotated Bibliography 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is an annotated bibliography of 67 research or review articles on global warming/climate change impacts on the Colorado Plateau, relevant to Manti-La Sal NF. Many/most of the impacts (drought, higher temperatures, earlier snowmelt, etc.) are cumulative with other impacts, including grazing and other surface disturbances.

Quick Citation: Hoglander, C., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Annotated Bibliography: Current and Projected Climate Change Impacts for the Colorado Plateau: Assessment Implications for the Manti-La Sal NF Plan Revision. Unpublished document, Grand Canyon Trust.

Climate Change 69 articles – Co Plaateau articles 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The 69 research and review articles in this bibliography are those that are summarized in the Climate Change annotated bibliography

Quick Citation: Sixty-Nine Articles on Climate Change on the Colorado Plateau

Research: 20-year study showing declines of alpine forbs at the southern margins 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Over a twenty-year period (1988-2014), 46 populations of arctic-alpine or boreal plants at the southern margins of their alpine area, fen, or forest were studied for their trends in density, by species. Dicots (broad-leaved plants) declined 5.8% per year, while monocots (sedges, grasses) remained more stable. This article cites similar results over shorter periods of time or with experimental increases in temperature.

Quick Citation: Lesica, P, and E.E. Crone. 2017. Arctic and boreal plant species decline at their southern range limits in the Rocky Mountains. Ecology Letters 20: 166–174

Research: Overlapping influence of land use and climate change on the Colorado Plateau 🌐 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

The combination of co-occurring climate change and increasing land-use is likely to affect future environmental and socioeconomic conditions in drylands; these hyper-arid to sub-humid landscapes are limited by water resources and prone to land degradation. We characterized the potential for geographic overlap among land-use practices and between land-use and climate change on the Colorado Plateau. This analytical framework for assessing the potential impacts of overlapping land-use and climate change could be applied with other drivers of change or to other regions to create scenarios at various spatial scales in support of natural resource planning efforts.

Quick Citation: Copeland, S. M., J. B. Bradford, M. C. Duniway, and R. M. Schuster. 2017. Potential impacts of overlapping land-use and climate in a sensitive dryland: a case study of the Colorado Plateau, USA. Ecosphere 8(5):e01823. 10.1002/ecs2.1823

Research: cumulative impacts of herbivory and drought with crabs grazing salt marshes in China 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study of crabs that graze salt marsh grass in China is an example of how grazers add to plant stress both during and after drought. Where the grazing crabs were excluded, drought only moderately affected the salt marsh grasses; mortality during and after the drought was high with the grazers present.Implications for forest plan assessment: The EIS needs to describe the implications of grazing for both the recent dominance of below-average rainfall years coupled with rises in temperature.

Quick Citation: He, Q., B.R. Silliman, Z. Liu, an B. Cui. 2017. Natural enemies govern ecosystem resilience in the face of extreme droughts. Ecology Letters 20 (2), 194-201.

Research: economic cost to society caused by addition of CO2 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Study estimating the social cost of carbon in terms of the economic cost caused by an additional ton of carbon dioxide emission. The study estimates that the social cost of carbon is $31 per ton of CO2 in 2010. The real social cost of carbon grows at 3% per year over the period to 2050. Relevant to the Manti-La Sal Forest Plan due to the carbon costs associated with timber, grazing, mining, and recreation.

Quick Citation: Nordhaus, WD (2016). Revisiting the social costs of carbon. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences, 114 (7), 1518–1523.

Research: responses of plant communities to pulses of extreme drought on top of prolonged drought 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

When subjected to an extreme drought on top of a prolonged drought (which is a likely scenario in this region under future climate change) plant community types responded differently. C3 grasses were most sensitive and prone to mortality. C4 grasses and shrubs had intermediate drought sensitivity. C3 shrubs were the most resistant to mortality. These differential responses to overlapping drought events suggest that ecosystem components will respond differently to changes to climate, and resilient ecosystems are needed in order to mitigate potential and unexpected mortality.

Quick Citation: Hoover, D.L., Duniway, M.C. & Belnap, J. Pulse-drought atop press-drought: unexpected plant responses and implications for dryland ecosystems. Oecologia (2015) 179: 1211. doi:10.1007/s00442-015-3414-3

Research:different responses of grasses and shrubs to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study examines the responses of grasses and shrubs on the Colorado Plateau to chronic drought. It appears the shrubs are avoiding drought, possibly by utilizing moisture at deeper soil layers, while the grasses are limited to shallower layers and must endure the drought conditions. Give this differential sensitivity to drought, a future with less precipitation and higher temperatures may increase the dominance of shrubs on the Colorado Plateau, as grasses succumb to chronic water stress.

Quick Citation: Hoover, D. L., Duniway, M. C. and Belnap, J. (2017), Testing the apparent resistance of three dominant plants to chronic drought on the Colorado Plateau. J Ecol, 105: 152–162. doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12647

Using state change-land-use change framework to consider desertification and dryland transformation 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

The paper suggests a detailed model of vegetation and soil change (i.e. state change that comprise of equilibrium states, non-equilibrium states, and thresholds) combined with an understanding of land-use change as a broad, process-oriented way to manage the continued transformation of drylands.

Quick Citation: Bestelmeyer, B. T., Okin, G. S., Duniway, M. C., Archer, S. R., Sayre, N. F., Williamson, J. C. and Herrick, J. E. (2015), Desertification, land use, and the transformation of global drylands. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 13: 28–36. doi:10.1890/140162

Research: groundwater comprises a greater fraction of CO River basin water use than previously thought 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study found that throughout the CO river basin, there was a net negative change in groundwater storage, which the authors considered an indication that groundwater withdrawal was not balanced by recharge. The rapid rate of depletion of groundwater storage (5.6 ± 0.4 km3 yr1) far exceeded the rate of depletion of Lake Powell and Lake Mead. Results indicate that groundwater may comprise a far greater fraction of Basin water use than previously recognized, in particular during drought, and that its disappearance may threaten the long-term ability to meet future allocations to the seven Basin states. The opportunity for the groundwater to recharge will be infrequent under future climate change.

Quick Citation: Castle, S. L., B. F. Thomas, J. T. Reager, M. Rodell, S. C. Swenson, and J. S. Famiglietti (2014), Groundwater depletion during drought threatens future water security of the Colorado River Basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 5904–5911, doi:10.1002/2014GL061055.

Research: increasing year round temperatures will increase visitation to national parks 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study found that visitation to National Parks increases with increasing monthly temperatures. Warming-mediated increases in potential visitation are projected for most months of the year in most parks, with 13-31 day expansion in visitation to most parks. The results suggests that protected areas and neighboring communities need to develop adaptation strategies for these change in visitation.

Quick Citation: Fisichelli NA, Schuurman GW, Monahan WB, Ziesler PS (2015) Protected Area Tourism in a Changing Climate: Will Visitation at US National Parks Warm Up or Overheat? PLoS ONE 10(6): e0128226. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0128226

Research: impact of dust on duration of mountain snow 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Snow cover duration in the San Juan Mountains was found to be shorted by 18 to 35 days due to the changes in albedo and warmer surface temperatures associated with desert dust landing on snow. This has large consequences for the water budget of the CO river basin. Additionally, the projected increases in drought intensity and frequency and associated increases in dust emission from the desert southwest may further reduce snow cover duration.

Quick Citation: Painter, T. H., A. P. Barrett, C. C. Landry, J. C. Neff, M. P. Cassidy, C. R. Lawrence, K. E. McBride, and G. L. Farmer (2007), Impact of disturbed desert soils on duration of mountain snow cover, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L12502, doi:10.1029/2007GL030284.

Research: climate induced mortality of Pinyon in the Southwest 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Research: This research looked that the results of drought-induced mortality of pinyon trees in the Southwest. They found stand densities did not impact mortality levels for trees, had some effects on fire structure, and found that arthropods were moderately influenced by habitat changes. Together these findings suggest the impacts of drought-induced tree mortality might not appear for years or decades after a major mortality event.

Quick Citation: Clifford, Michael J.; Rocca, Monique E.; Delph, Robert; Ford, Paulette L.; Cobb, Neil S. 2008. Drought induced tree mortality and ensuing bark beetle outbreaks in southwestern pinyon-juniper woodlands. In: Gottfried, Gerald J.; Shaw, John D.; Ford, Paulette L., compilers. 2008. Ecology, management, and restoration of pinon-juniper and ponderosa pine ecosystems: combined proceedings of the 2005 St. George, Utah and 2006 Albuquerque, New Mexico workshops. Proceedings RMRS-P-51. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 39-51

Research: extent of complete removal of forest patches in the continental US 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

This research calculates that total forest loss was around 90,400 km squared in the 1990s in the continental US. The study found very high levels of attrition in the western US, in rural areas and on public lands, along with the loss of key forests in adjacent ecoregions that serve as the closest forested resource for wildlife. In order to sequester more carbon, this study suggests understanding patterns of attrition, and mitigating the carbon cost by replanting trees may be necessary.

Quick Citation: Yang S, Mountrakis G (2017) Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0171383.

Grazing effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Reviewed research examining how grazing influences soil organic carbon stocks in grasslands. The review found 1) root contents (a primary control of SOC formation) were higher in grazed than in their ungrazed counterparts at the driest and wettest sites, but were lower at sites with intermediate precipitation (∼400 mm to 850 mm); 2) SOM C∶N ratios frequently increased under grazing conditions, which suggests potential N limitations for SOM formation under grazing; and 3) bulk density either increased or did not change in grazed sites. Overall the findings suggest rangeland productivity and soil carbon sequestration can be simultaneously increased by management practices aimed at increasing N retention at the landscape level.

Quick Citation: Piñeiro G., Paruelo J.M., Oesterheld M., Jobbágy E. G. 2010. Pathways of Grazing Effects on Soil Organic Carbon and NitrogenRangeland Ecology & Management. 63:1, 109- 119

Research: showing that to keep global warming below 2 degrees C coal needs o be left in the ground 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Modeling approach showing that in order to keep global warming below the target goal of 2 degrees C, 1/3 of oil reserves, half of gas reserves, and over 80% of coal reserves should remain unused from 2010 to 2050.

Quick Citation: McGlade, C., Ekins, P. 2015. The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 degrees C. Nature. 517(7533):187-90

Research: examining the amount of methane emitted during coal mining 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Considerable amounts of methane are released into the atmosphere with coal-mine ventilation air. A single ventilation shaft may discharge several hundred thousand cubic metres of ventilated air that includes methane per hour. As a greenhouse gas, methane is 20 times more effective in trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period.

Quick Citation: Warmuzinski, K. 2008. Harnessing methane emissions from coal mining. Process Safety & Environmental Protection: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers Part B. 86:5, 315-320.

The potential for the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Book chapter: Looking at the terrestrial carbon sink and the potential for the sink to become saturated as CO2 levels continue to increase

Quick Citation: Canadell, J. G., D. E. Pataki, R. Gifford, R. A. Houghton, Y. Luo, M. R. Raupach, P. Smith, and W. Steffen (2007), Saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, in Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, edited by J. G. Canadell, D. E. Pataki, and L. F. Pitelka, pp. 59–78, Springer, Berlin, Germany.

Research: methane plumes over the Four Corners due to gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, well pads, and coal mine venting shafts 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. The analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit ∼∼ 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through ∼∼ 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft.

Quick Citation: Frankenberg, C. et al. 2016. Airborne methane remote measurements reveal heavy-tail flux distribution in Four Corners region. PNAS. 113 (35) 9734-9739

Research: methane emissions from grazing animals from the national scale to the global scale 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas whose atmospheric abundance has grown 2.5-fold over three centuries, due in large part to agricultural expansion. The farming of ruminant livestock, which generate and emit methane during digestion is a leading contributor to this growth. This paper concludes livestock are possibly one of the largest emitters of methane in the world.

Quick Citation: Lassey, K.R., 2007. Livestock methane emissions: from the individual grazing animal through national inventories to the global methane cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 142, 120-132.

Review: refuting the Savory Method of grazing and pointing out the lack of science behind it 💾
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Allan Savory’s grazing regime that he claims to be able to green the desert and resist climate change is not based on any science. The authors find all of Savory’s claims unfounded. In fact the authors suggest that Mr. Savory’s method to reverse rangeland degradation and/or climate change might actually accelerate these processes.

Quick Citation: Briske, D.D., Bestelmeyer, B.T., Brown, J.R., Fuhlendorf, S.D., Polley, H.W., 2013. The Savory
Method can not green deserts or reverse climate change. Rangelands 35, 72–74.

Review: reviewing the literature on grazing management and showing wrong information in the holistic management system 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

Review of grazing literature found no peer-reviewed study showing that the grazing method of holistic management was superior to conventional grazing systems in outcomes. The authors find holistic management is just as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as conventional grazing.

Quick Citation: Carter J., Jones A., O’Brien M., Ratner J., Wuerthner G. 2014. “Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems,” International Journal of Biodiversity. 2014:163431

Research: comparison of multiple ecosystem functions in grazed and ungrazed watershed in Southeast Utah 🌐
Climate Change • Submitted by Kristina Young

When comparing grazed and ungrazed watersheds, the authors found clearly high levels of forage production, dust retention, and C storage attained in the ungrazed watershed. The differences were strongest when examining dust retention and C storage.

Quick Citation: Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E., and Belote, R.T., 2012, Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek watershed and Dugout Ranch, southeastern Utah: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1061, 56 p.

No articles found.
Research: Loss of a single pollinator species reduces specialization of other pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Even the loss of a single pollinator species can reduce pollination

Quick Citation: Brosi BJ, HM Briggs. 2013. Single pollinator species losses reduce floral fidelity and plant reproductive function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (32): 13044-13048.

Research: Honey bees compete w/ native pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Honeybees are in direct competition with native bees

Quick Citation: Cane JH, VJ Tepedino. 2016. Gauging the effect of honey bee pollen collection on native bee communities. Conservation Letters 0: 1-6.

Research: Honey bees pass their diseases to native bees and bumblebees 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Honeybees pass their diseases to native bees and bumblebees

Quick Citation: Fürst MA, DP McMahon, JL Osborne, RJ Paxton, and MJF Brown. 2014. Disease associations between honeybees and bumblebees as a threat to wild pollinators. Nature 506: 364-366.

Presidential Memo calls for conservation of pollinators 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Native pollinators are included in this Memorandum.

Quick Citation: Obama, B. 2014. Creating a Federal Strategy to Promote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators [Memorandum]. Washington, DC: The White House.

Research: In a Great Basin site, bee diversity was highest in pinyon-juniper; lowest in crested wheatgrass. 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Crested wheatgrass: less bee diversity; pinyon-juniper bee species diversity hightest at a Great Basin site

Quick Citation: Johnson RL. 2008. Impacts of habitat alterations and predispersal seed predation on the reproductive success of Great Basin forbs (Doctoral dissertation). Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

Research: Once-yearly sampling of butterflies for 32 years of one site; 39% decline in species; took years to detect declines 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Manti-La Sal NF is likely experiencing pollinator declines as well.

Quick Citation: O’Brien JM, JH Thorne, ML Rosenzweig, AM Shapiro. 2011. Once-yearly sampling for the detection of trends in biodiversity: The case of Willow Slough, California. Biological Conservation 144(7): 2012-2019.

Research: Honey bees compete w/ bumblebees 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The purposeful placing of honey bee hives on MLSNF would reduce native bumblebees

Quick Citation: Thomson, D. 2016. Local bumblebee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources. Ecology Letters 19(10): 1247-1255

Overview: Brief Trust overview of documents submitted re: smooth brome 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

A key assessment issue: How widespread are smooth brome monocultures?

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Bromus Inermis: A Significant Assessment Issue.

Lit review: A class paper on iinvasive qualities of exotic smooth brome 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Smooth brome reduction of biodiversity largely irreversible.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Sue. 2016. The invasive qualities of smooth brome (Bromus inermis).

Research: Interim report on 2-yr study native and non-native, invasive grasses in White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Insight into where exotic grasses dominate and where native grasses are present in Ponderosa pine, aspen, and meadow communities on White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area (Monticello Ranger District)

Quick Citation: SMITH, Sue. White Mesa Cultural and Conservation Area. rep. 2016.

Research: 40 years after cattle excluded, Kentucky bluegrass and smooth brome have persisted in Manitoba Canada 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

An assessment of where smooth brome dominates on MLSNF is essential; active restoration may be needed

Quick Citation: SINKINS, Peter A. and OTFINOWSKI, Rafael. Invasion or retreat? The fate of exotic invaders on the northern prairies, 40 years after cattle grazing. Plant Ecology. November 2012. Vol. 213, no. 8p. 1251–1262. DOI 10.1007/s11258-012-0083-8.

Monitoring: Rocky Mountain iris monoculture at a specific site, 2012-2016. 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Photos and transects read in 2012 and 2016 inside and outside a 16′ X 16′ vegetation cage in the La Sal Mts shows dominance by iris

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Oowah Bench.

Photos and Overview: Rocky Mountain Iris: A significant assessment issue 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

It will be important for the FS to assess the extent to which moist meadows and riparian areas in MLSNF have become iris monocultures

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Iris missouriensis: A Significant Assessment Issue.

Comment and Information Request Regarding Species of Conservation Concern on the MLSNF 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Trust letter to MLSNF: How many plants and animals will MLSNF recognize as species of conservation concern?

Quick Citation: O’BRIEN, Mary. Letter to Forest Plan Revision Team. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

USFS procedures for identifying species of conservation concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The technicalities of designating species of conservation concern: the Trust has requested those documents highlighted in yellow

Quick Citation: CUMMINS, Tiffany. 2016. Manti-La Sal National Forest Potential Species of Conservation Concern (SCC) Review Procedural Report. Manti- La Sal National Forest, Price, UT.

Assessment: Cottonwood Creek Spring; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced, not trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sofie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/28/2016. Cottonwood Creek Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Crandall Canyon Spring Complex: Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced, trampled

Quick Citation: DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, POPENOE, Abby, and ROLLINS, Emma. 09/28/2016. Crandall Canyon Spring Complex (#186) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Gentry Mountain Spring (#158); Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; Maintained; not trampled inside; heavy trampling outside

Quick Citation: SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah, LINDQUIST, Signe, FORD, Fields, and SMITH, Collin. 09/28/2016. Gentry Mountain Spring (#158) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Joe’s Valley Spring; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; light trampling

Quick Citation: DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, POPENOE, Abby, and ROLLINS, Emma. 09/28/2016. Joe’s Valley Spring (#239) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 177 : Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; heavy trampling outside

Quick Citation: CHAMPION, Amanda, AURICHIO, Maya, BAKER, Maggie, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/28/2016. Spring 177 Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Gentry Mountain Spring 181: Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah, LINDQUIST, Signe, FORD, Fields, and SMITH, Collin. 09/28/2016. Gentry Mountain Spring (#181) Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 169; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, BUTLER, Grace, DEE, Gardner, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/28/2016. 169 Spring Conditions Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: North Point Spring:Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sofie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/28/2016. North Point Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Spring 243; Ferron Price RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; trampling outside

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, BUTLER, Grace, DEE, Gardner, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/28/2016. Spring 243 Conditions Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Hillside (Beaver Creek) Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: ROLLINS, Emma, DUNN, Hunter, FINLEY, Nina, and POPENOE, Abby. 09/25/2016. Hillside (Beaver Creek) Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Coyote Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampling

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/25/2016. Coyote Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Deer Springs Complex: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence maintained; light trampling outside

Quick Citation: FORD, Fields, LINDQUIST, Signe, SPOONER, Kenzie, DUNN, Sarah. 09/25/2016. Deer Springs Complex Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Lackey Basin Spring:Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; most water diverted

Quick Citation: JOHNSON, Willa, MEINZEN, Thomas, and O’BRIEN, Mary. 09/25/2016. Lackey Basin Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment:Lower Pinhook Spring in the Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Large fenced exclosure; slightly not maintained; not trampled

Quick Citation: Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust. 09/23/2016. Lower Pinhook Spring Condition Assessment.

Assessment:Mason Draw Spring: Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. Mason Draw Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Pack Creek Spring; Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Not fenced; not trampled

Quick Citation: CHAMPION, Amanda, BAKER, Maggie, AURICHIO, Maya, and ROMASCO-KELLY, Evan. 09/25/2016. Pack Creek Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: South Mesa Spring Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fenced; not trampled

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. South Mesa Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Assessment: Webb Hollow Spring in the Moab-Monticello RD 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Fence not maintained; trampling

Quick Citation: CRONK, Griffin, GREENFIELD, Elizabeth, POUKISH, Sophie, and TRETTERNO, Hannah. 09/25/2016. Webb Hollow Spring Condition Assessment. Semester in the West with Grand Canyon Trust.

Potential MLSNF Species of Conservation Concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

As of November 10, 2016, MLSNF is rejecting 49 of the 53 recommended plant species of conservation concern proposed by the Regional Office (who is the final decisionmaker on this issue) and is rejecting 13 of 23 non-plant species of conservation concern recommended by the Regional Office. No data given for these rejections as of 11/10/2016.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. November 10, 2016. Species of Conservation Concern for Manti-La Sal NF:
RO and Manti-La Sal NF Recommendations.

Summary: Graphs and brief text summarizing assessment of 46 Manti-La Sal springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2016, staff, volunteers, and students briefly assessed the conditions at 46 springs on MLSNF: fencing, trampling, native vs. non-native grasses, etc. The fences at 13 of 30 fenced springs were not fully maintained; cattle/elk trampling was observed at 21 of 46 springs, and at 10 of 14 springs where fences were not being maintained.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Summary: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports. Unpublished report.

Assessment: 15 Elk Ridge Springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The conditions at 15 springs on Elk Ridge (Moab-Monticello RD) were briefly assessed June 27-29, 2016. Conditions noted included fencing, trampling, non-native vs. native grasses and other vegetation, presence of water, other species. The 15 springs are included in the summary document reviewing a total of 46 Manti-La Sal NF springs, “GCT: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports”

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, C., Erley, D., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Assessment: Fifteen Elk Ridge Springs, June 27-29, 2016.

Assessment: Eleven La Sal Mountain springs 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The conditions at 11 springs on La Sal Mountain (Moab-Monticello RD) were briefly assessed August 9-11, 2016. Conditions noted included fencing, trampling, non-native vs. native grasses and other vegetation, presence of water, other species. The eleven springs are included in the summary document reviewing a total of 46 Manti-La Sal NF springs, “GCT: Manti-La Sal NF Springs Reports”

Quick Citation: HOGLANDER, C., Erley, D., and O’Brien, M. 2016. Assessments: Eleven La Sal Mountain Springs, August 9-11, 2016. Unpublished Grand Canyon Trust report.

Brief overview: Springs Assessments 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is a brief overview of the significance of springs and why the Trust has provided brief assessments of the conditions at 46 springs on the Manti-La Sal NF. The MLSNF needs to assess conditions of the springs on the MLSNF

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Springs: A Significant Assessment Issue re: loss of biodiversity

Research: Beaver as a tool for amphibian restoration 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Beaver create important habitat for amphibians and can be used as an amphibian monitoring tool.

Quick Citation: STEVENS, C, PASZKOWSKI, C and FOOTE, A. Beaver (Castor canadensis) as a surrogate species for conserving anuran amphibians on boreal streams in Alberta, Canada. Biological Conservation. 2007. Vol. 134, no. 1p. 1–13. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2006.07.017.

Data Summary: Exotic Mt Goats residing in Mount Peale Research Natural Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Most exotic Mountain Goats in the La Sal Mountains alpine area with GPS or VHS radio collars are focusing their time (eating, trampling, wallowing) in or near the Mount Peale Research Natural Area, which, by U.S. Forest Service national regulations and the Manti-La Sal 1986 forest plan is to be kept free of exotic species.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Summary: GPS- and VHS-Collar Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Datafor Which 2016 Data exist, as Provided to GCT on Mountain Goats in the La Sal Mountains 2014-June 2016.

Lit Review: Mountain Goat impacts in the West 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Exotic Mountain Goats have been placed in the alpine area of the La Sal Mountains and they are focusing their time within the Mount Peale Research Natural Area above 11,000′. This review of scientific literature and National Park Service and other reports shows that the small, sensitive alpine area in the La Sal Mountains will inevitably be degraded through mountain goat activity. The state plans for 200 goats to live round the year in this area.

Quick Citation: JONES, A., B. HANSEN, and M. MOYANO. 2015. Impacts of Non-native Mountain Goats in Introduction Areas of the West: A Review of the Literature. Unpublished review by Wild Utah Project. Unpublished report.

Field Report: Mountain Goat damage in La Sal Mountains 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2015, using a Forest Service impact monitoring method, Wild Utah Program staff and volunteers documented evidence of Mountain Goat damage in Mount Peale Research Natural Area. Not surprising, but devastating news for one of the very few alpine areas on the Colorado Plateau.

Quick Citation: WILD UTAH PROJECT. 2015. Alpine Vegetation Impact Assessment of the Mt. Peale Research Natural Area: 2015 Survey Report. Unpublished report. Salt Lake City UT: Wild Utah Project

Monitoring: 2015 Goat damage La Sal Mountains alpine area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2015, using a Forest Service method, Wild Utah Project staff and volunteers documented mountain goat damage in the Mount Peale Research Natural Area

Quick Citation: WILD UTAH PROJECT. 2015. Alpine Vegetation Impact Assessment of the Mt. Peale Research Natural Area: 2015 Survey Report. Salt Lake City, UT: Wild Utah Project

Monitoring: 2014: Goat damage La Sal Mountains alpine area 🌐
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Within a year of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources helicoptering 35 exotic mountain goats to the La Sal Mountains, [physical damage to the fragile alpine area was photographed by Whitman College students. This report includes photographs of the damage.

Quick Citation: SEMESTER IN THE WEST. 2014. Mountain Goat Physical Impacts in the la Sal Mountains Alpine Area, Including the Mount Peale Research Natural Area. Grand Canyon Trust unpublished report.

Maps: Mountain Goats are concentrating use on Mount Peale Research Natural Area 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Using Utah Division of Wildlife Resources data from GPS and VHF radio collar data on the exotic mountain goats September 2014-June 2016, it is clear that the goats are concentrating their use within the small, fragile Mount Peale Research Natural Area, 11,000-12,800′

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Mountain Goats are Concentrating Use on Mount Peale Research Natural Area:
Maps of Utah Division of Wildlife Resource Data 2014-June 2016 GIS and VHS Collar Data

Significant Issue: Aspen Recruitment 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

By July 2016, 180 young aspen had recruited (i.e., grown above 6′ tall), such that their leaders are beyond cattle browsing and most elk browsing. It was browsing alone that had prevented recruitment for decades at this site. Sprouts of persistent aspen (i.e., aspen stands in which conifer is not a significant presence) that are on low-gradient, open areas, are particularly vulnerable to excessive browsing and annual removal of the leading buds that are essential for growing tall.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2o16. Significant Issue: Ungulate Aspen Herbivory: Without and With Fencing; Boren Mesa, Brumley Ridge Allotment, Moab-Monticello District Manti-La Sal NF. Unpublished report.

Research: Most female elk use same (aspen) home range during summer 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This 2-yr Colorado Plateau study (NW Colorado) of elk show high fidelity of female elk to their summer range, which is often centered in aspen stands, thus posing a browsing threat to aspen sprouts. It implies that targeted hunts could reduce elk populations during critical times for aspen sprouts, e.g., post-fire. This would require the FS to coordinate with the state wildlife agency (in Utah, the Wildlife Board of the Utah Div. of Wildlife Resources)

Quick Citation: Brough, A.M., R.J. DeRose, M.M. Conner, and J.N. Long. 2017. Summer-fall home-range fidelity of female elk in northwestern Colorado: Implications for aspen management. Forest Ecology and Management 389:220–227.

Research: Comparison of ungrazed and grazed spring 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

While the study in this chapter was done in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, the fact that some springs in Manti-La Sal are protected or inaccessible to livestock, while others are accessible and heavily-used by livestock makes the differences noted in this chapter important for MLSNF. The study found a more diverse vegetation structure, less coverage by exotic species, and greater presence of predatory invertebrates in the ungrazed spring, among other differences. The chapter explains the significance of the differences as well as the differences.

Quick Citation: Perla, B.S. and L.E. Stevens. Biodiversity And Productivity At An Undisturbed Spring In Comparison With Adjacent Grazed Riparian And Upland Habitats. Chapter 11 in L.E. Stevens and V.J. Meretsky. Aridland Springs in North America.

Utah Native Plant Society recommends 34 + 20 plants as Species of Conservation Concern 💾
Diversity of plant and animal communities • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

The USFS Regional Office (UT, NV, so. ID, and w. WY national forests) sent a list of 53 plants to the MLNF to consider for designation as “Species of Conservation Concern” (SCC) in their new forest plan. The MLNF responded that they recommend only two of the 51 species as SCC. In contrast, Utah Native Plant Society has recommended to the Regional Office that 34 of the 51 be designated as SCC, and 20 more the Regional Office didn’t even list. This document provides the UNPS reasoning overall and the ratioinale for each of their recommended plant species

Quick Citation: Utah Native Plant Society. 2017 Review of Manti-La Sal National Forest Speciesof Conservation Concern, February 20.

Pollinators can be affected at small to large scales; long-term monitoring is needed 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Need to consider small to large scale global warming impacts on pollinators

Quick Citation: Brantley SL, PL Ford. 2012. Climate Change and Arthropods: Pollinators, Herbivores, and Others: 35-47 in Climate Change in Grasslands, Shrublands, and Deserts of the Interior American West: A Review and Needs Assessment. Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Review article: Native solitary bees are important 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Native solitary bees are efficient pollinators

Quick Citation: Laursen L. 2015. Lone rangers: Solitary bees receive scant attention, but research shows that they are vital pollinators of crops and wild habitats. Nature Outlook 521(7552): 62-63.

Map: Existing Beaver Dam Capacity on Streams in Utah 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Maximum dam density color-coded on the MLSNF.

Quick Citation: AUMANN, Emily. Existing Beaver Dam Capacity. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Map: Streams with potential for beaver restoration, Ferron-Price and Sanpete ranger districts 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Map shows streams color-coded by potential for beaver restoration.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Stephanie. Manti La-Sal National Forest Ideal Streams for Beaver Restoration, Map 1 of 2. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Map: Streams with potential for beaver restoration, Moab-Monticello ranger district 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Map shows streams color-coded by potential for beaver restoration.

Quick Citation: SMITH, Stephanie. Manti La-Sal National Forest Ideal Streams for Beaver Restoration, Map 2 of 2. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Advice: Beaver Restoration Guidebook 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Guide for working with beaver in restoration of streams, wetlands, and floodplains.

Quick Citation: CASTRO, Janine, POLLOCK, Michael, JORDAN, Chris, LEWALLEN, Gregory, and WOODRUFF, Kent. 2015. The Beaver Restoration Guidebook. US Fish and Wildlife Services, NOAA, Portland State University, and the USFS. Version 1.0.

Report: Utah Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool 🌐
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Details of the Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (used in maps in this repository) and its use.

Quick Citation: MACFARLANE, William, WHEATON, Joseph, and JENSEN, Martha. 2014. The Utah Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool: A Decision Support and Planning Tool. Ecogeomorphology and Topographic Analysis Lab, Utah State University, Prepared for Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Logan, Utah, 135 pp. Available at: http://etal.usu.edu/BRAT/

Overview: Brief Trust overview of documents submitted re: beaver 💾
Ecosystem services • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This document indicates the documents that have been sent to the Manti-La Sal NF; including maps of those MLSNF streams with the capacity to support dam-building beaver, those streams that have not only the capacity but likely current suitable conditions for beaver; how such maps have been made (Riparian Condition Assessment Tool, Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool), a comprehensive guidebook by the US Fish and Wildlife Service re: the value and management of beaver, and research on beaver and boreal toads (a Utah sensitive species).

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Manti-La Sal NF Forest Plan Revision Assessment Information: Beaver: A focal species for sure

Advice: How to assess native bee habitat 🌐
Monitoring • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Has the MLSNF attempted habitat assessment for native bees?

Quick Citation: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. 2011. Native Bee Conservation Pollinator Habitat Assessment Form and Guide.

Research: Year-to-year variation of pollinators can be high; small distances (e.g., 25m) can mean different pollinators 💾
Monitoring • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Monitoring of pollinators is difficult: year-to-year variation can be high

Quick Citation: Herrera, CM. 1988. Variation in mutualisms: the spatiotemporal mosaic of a pollinator assemblage. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 35: 95-125

Research: Livestock grazing reduces native pollinators 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing shown to reduce native pollinators

Quick Citation: Debano SJ. 2006. Effects of livestock grazing on aboveground insect communities in semi-arid grasslands of southeastern Arizona. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:2547–2564.

Research: Bumblebee species richness down with livestock grazing; up with forb species richness 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing reduces bumblebee species richness

Quick Citation: Hatfield RG, G Lebuhn. 2007. Patch and landscape factors shape community assemblage of bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in montane meadows. Biological Conservation 139 (2007): 150-158.

Research: An experimental study of one forb of the pea family shows 4 ways sheep grazing can negatively affect the pollinators 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Pollinators/nests can be trampled by livestock, as well as losing their flowers to consumption.

Quick Citation: Sugden, EA. 1985. Pollinators of Astragalus monoensis barneby (fabacae): New host records; potential impact of sheep grazing. The Great Basin Naturalist 45(2): 299-312.

Significant Issue: Annual, Heavy Livestock Grazing During Similar Times in the Growing Season 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance of the Trust documents summarizing MLSNF data on pasture on/off dates over the past ten years.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Annual, Heavy Livestock Grazing During Similar Times in the Growing Season.

Explanation: When a poor grazing rotation score isn’t really bad 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

To be read in conjunction with three graphs: BARTON-RUSSELL and BARTH 2016a, 2016b, and 2016c

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. When a bad score isn’t really bad: an explanation. Grand Canyon Trust.

Chart: which Manti La Sal National Forest pastures have had any rest in ten years 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In the past 10 years (2007-2016), 70% of the pastures in the Manti-La Sal National Forest received no documented rest years

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. Grazing and Resting of Pastures: La Sal National Forest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Charts showing pature rotation on Bald Mesa Allotment 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

An example of the on-off dates for the pastures on one MLSNF allotment for 10 years (such a chart is available from the Trust on reaqest for the 435 pastures on the MLSNF 2007-2016)

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Pasture rotation charts for Bald Mesa.

Charts showing how frequently MLSNF pastures were rested, 2007-2016 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Twelve allotments on MLSNF have allowed for rest every 2-4 years during the past ten years

Quick Citation: BARTH, Jonathan and RUCKMAN, Rachel. 2016. MLSNF Pastures With Regular Rest. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Ferron-Price, 2007-2016 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction.

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016a. Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Ferron Price District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Moab-Monticello District, 2007-2017 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL, Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016b . Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Moab-Monticello District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Scores for overlap of grazing timing on the Sanpete District, 2007-2017 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

If a pasture is grazed at the same or nearly same time every year, those flowering/seeding at that time will repeatedly lack reproduction.

Quick Citation: BARTON-RUSSELL, Rachel and BARTH, Jonathan. 2016c. Overlap Grazing Scores: Manti La Sal National Forest, 2007-2016. Sanpete District. Grand Canyon Trust.

Report of a statewide consensus collaboration on what sustainable grazing would be on the U.S. Forest Service Lands in Southern Utah 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

These recommendations, e.g., for a variety of grazing arrangements and participation of diverse stakeholders in grazing management considerations are useful. Diverse stakeholders arrived at consensus on these

Quick Citation: STRAUBE, Michelle and BELTON, Lorien. 2012. Collaborative Group on Sustainable Grazing for U.S. Forest Service Lands in Southern Utah: Final Report and Consensus Recommendations.

Assessment Issue: >20% Slope is Seldom Used by Cattle 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance of documents the Trust submitted showing that cattle rarely use slopes over 20% steep, and yet the FS calculates capacity as if forage on slopes up to 30% is being used

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Significant Issue: <20% slope seldom used by cattle.

Research: Slope Use by Cattle, Feral Horses, Deer, and Bighorn Sheep. 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle use slopes of 20%-29% about 3% of their time.

Quick Citation: GANSKOPP, David and VAVRA, Martin. Slope Use by Cattle, Feral Horses, Deer, and Bighorn Sheep. Northwest Science. 1987. Vol. 61, no. 2p. 74–81.

Use of Slopes by Cattle in Rugged Terrain 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle spent 70%-82% of their time on slopes 0-9% slope; 3-5% of their time on slopes 20%-29%.

Quick Citation: GANSKOPP, David and VAVRA, Martin. 1984. Use of Slopes by Cattle in Rugged Terain. Oregon State University, Agricultural Experiment Station.

Research: Livestock use of slopes 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle seldom use areas with greater than 10% slope

Quick Citation: LYONS, Robert K and MACHEN, Richard V. Livestock Grazing Distribution: Considerations and Management. Texas Cooperative Extension. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 2001.

Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle grazing focuses on a minority of acreage

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016a. Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District.

Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNFL: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing focuses on a minority of acreage; sheep are not supposed to use steep slopes due to erosion

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016b. Map: Vegetation on 0-10% slope in MLSNF:Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts

Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF:Moab-Monticello District 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle grazing focuses on a minority of acreage.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016c. Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Moab-Monticello District.

Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock grazing focuses on a minority of acreage; sheep are not supposed to use steep slopes due to erosion.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016d. Map: Vegetation on 0-20% slope in MLSNF: Ferron-Price and Sanpete Districts.

Analysis: Vegetation and Slope in Allotments of the MLSNF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Excel sheet showing percent of vegetation type in 0-10% and 11%-20% slope on MLSNF allotments.

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2014. Manti La Sal Slope Vegetation Analysis.

Graph of vegetation on 0-20% slopes in the MLSNF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Bar charts showing which MLSNF allotments have which vegetation types within 0%-10% and 115-20% slope

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Graph of vegetation on 0-20% slopes.

Research: Beef Cattle Distribution Patterns on Foothiss Range 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Cattle on a WY allotment concentrated 70% of use on slopes below 7% slope.

Quick Citation: PINCHAK, William E., SMITH, Michael A., HART, Richard H. and WAGGONER, James W. Beef Cattle Distribution Patterns on Foothill Range. Journal of Range Management. 1991. Vol. 44, no. 3p. 267. DOI 10.2307/4002956.

Unpublished review of how livestock weights have increased and the implications for forage consumption 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Livestock are bigger than they used to be (and therefore consume more MLSNF vegetation); the numbers of permitted livestock mostly remain the same. So far the FS/BLM are not taking this into consideration

Quick Citation: CARTER, John. 2016. Updating the Animal Unit Month.

Photos: 305 photos of livestock-related resource concerns on the Manti-La Sal NF. 🌐
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

These photos of various resource concerns associated with livestock grazing illustrate the resource concerns the Forest Service noted in its 2014 document, “Initial Review of Livestock Grazing Effects on Select Ecosystems of the Dixie, Fishlake, and Manti La Sal National Forests.” The Initial Review focused on 30 resource concerns in five habitats, but the photos in this Grand Canyon Trust document include some photos of additional resource concerns in additional habitats as well

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. An Illustration of Forest Service Resource Concerns:Photos on Manti-La Sal NF.

USFS specialists’ reports of resource concerns associated with livestock grazing on Manti-La Sal, Dixie, and Fishlake NF 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This is an important document in which the Forest Service, in 2014, acknowledged some 30 resource concerns on the Manti-La Sal, Dixie, and Fishlake NF that are associated with livestock grazing in five habitats: Riparian and aquatic; lakes, ponds, springs and wetlands; sagebrush; aspen; and physical stream channel habitats.

Quick Citation: US Forest Service 2014.Initial Review of Livestock Grazing Effects on Select Ecosystems of the Dixie, Fishlake and Manti-La Sal National Forests

Brief overview:Livestock-related resource concerns noted by the FS are widespread 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

In 2014 the Forest Service noted resource concerns associated with livestock grazing. The Trust has submitted 305 photos illustrating such resource concerns on Manti-La Sal NF. This is a significant assessment issue for the MLSNF forest plan revision.

Quick Citation: GRAND CANYON TRUST. 2016. Manti-La Sal NF Forest Plan Revision Assessment Information:The livestock-related resource concerns noted by the Forest Service are widespread on the Manti-La Sal NF and ecologically significant

Grazing stress on plants is additive to drought 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

This study of crabs that graze salt marsh grass in China is an example of how grazers add to plant stress both during and after drought. Where the grazing crabs were excluded, drought only moderately affected the salt marsh grasses; mortality during and after the drought was high with the grazers present.

Quick Citation: He, Q., B.R. Silliman, Z. Liu, an B. Cui. 2017. Natural enemies govern ecosystem resilience in the face of extreme droughts. Ecology Letters 20 (2), 194-201

Biodiversity & productivity at a grazed and protected springs in Grand Staircase-Escalante 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

While the study in this chapter was done in Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, the fact that some springs in Manti-La Sal are protected or inaccessible to livestock, while others are accessible and heavily-used by livestock makes the differences noted in this chapter important for MLSNF. The study found a more diverse vegetation structure, less coverage by exotic species, and greater presence of predatory invertebrates in the ungrazed spring, among other differences. The chapter explains the significance of the differences as well as the differences.

Implications for forest plan assessment: If the MLSNF is not sure that the same differences hold for MLSNF grazed/ungrazed springs, then the forest should assume this is the case in its forest assessment absent MLNF information to the contrary.

Quick Citation: Perla, B.S. and Stevens. 2008. Biodiversity and Productivity at an Undisturbed Spring in Comparison with Adjacent Grazed Riparian and Upland Habitats. Chapter 11 in L.E. Stevens and V.J. Meretsky. Aridland Springs in North America. Tucson, AZ: Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum

Research: high elk fidelity to summers ranges posing a browsing threat to aspen 💾
Multiple use: Grazing; forage production • Submitted by Kristina Young

This 2-yr Colorado Plateau study (NW Colorado) finds female elk demonstrate high fidelity to their summer range, which is often centered in aspen stands, thus posing a browsing threat to aspen sprouts. It implies that targeted hunts could reduce elk populations during critical times for aspen sprouts, e.g., post-fire.
Implications for forest plan assessment: The EIS needs to map the overlap of summer elk pastures with aspen (persistent and seral) as well as slope. Those slopes below 15% and hosting high or moderate populations of elk should be regarded as at risk of excessive aspen browing.
As for forest management, targeted hunts would require the MLNF to coordinate with the Wildlife Board of the Utah Div. of Wildlife Resources. (An example of such collaboration is with the Richfield Ranger District (Fishlake NF), UDWR, and the Monroe Mountain Working Group, which has led to an EIS and ROD that provide for quantitative thresholds for browse of aspen.

Quick Citation: Brough, A.M., R.J. DeRose, M.M. Conner, and J.N. Long. 2017. Summer-fall home-range fidelity of female elk in northwestern Colorado: Implications for aspen management. Forest Ecology and Management 389:220–227.

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Research: ecology recovery after well pad reclamation differs with climate and land ownership 🌐
Multiple use: Oil and gas • Submitted by Kristina Young

This study used remote sensing to measure how effectively well pad reclamation efforts worked. It found that well-pads in grassland, blackbrush shrublands, arid canyon complexes, warmer areas with more summer-dominated precipitation, and state administered areas had low recovery rates.

Quick Citation: Nauman, TW. Duniway MC. Villarreal, ML. Poitras TB. 2017. Disturbance automated reference toolset (DART): Assessing patterns in ecological recovery from energy development on the Colorado Plateau. Science of Total Environment. 476-488. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.034

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Mapping: Riparian vegetation can be used to indicate riparian area conditions on a large scale 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Most Utah watersheds show significant to large departure from historic conditions.

Quick Citation: MACFARLANE, William W., GILBERT, Jordan T., JENSEN, Martha L., GILBERT, Joshua D., HOUGH-SNEE, Nate, MCHUGH, Peter A., WHEATON, Joseph M. and BENNETT, Stephen N. Riparian vegetation as an indicator of riparian condition: Detecting departures from historic condition across the North American West. Journal of Environmental Management. 26 October 2016. P. 1–14. DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.10.054.

Map: Riparian conditions assessments of the MLSNF 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Riparian area health color coded across the National Forest.

Quick Citation: BAKER, Maggie. Riparian Condition Assessment Manti La-Sal Districts. 2016. Grand Canyon Trust.

Maps: MLSNF Riparian Conditions 💾
Riparian areas • Submitted by Bethany Llewellyn

Maps show conditions of riparian areas, including vegetation and recovery potential, departure from historic riparian vegetation, and type of riparian vegetation conversion in the MLSNF and surrounding areas.

Quick Citation: LLEWELLYN, Bethany. 2016. MLSNF R-CAT Maps. Grand Canyon Trust. Maps by WHEATON, Joe, Utah State University.

Analysis: Agriculture in MLSFN Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of Agriculture in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Agriculture, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Federal Land Payments in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of federal land payments in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Federal Land Payments, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Government Employment in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of government employment in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Government Employment, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Land Use in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of land use in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Land Use, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Socioeconomics in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Socioeconomic measures in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Socioeconomic Measures, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economics of mining, Including Oil and Gas, in MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of mining, oil, and gas in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Mining, Including Oil and Gas, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economic Summary, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Summary of economics in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Summary Profile, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Economics of Travel and Tourism Industries, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Economics of travel and tourism industries in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Industries that Include Travel and Tourism, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

Analysis: Development and the Wildland-Urban Interface, MLSNF Counties 💾
Social, cultural, and economic conditions • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Good charts and explanations: Development and the wildland-urban interface in counties surrounding MLSNF

Quick Citation: Economic Profile System. A Profile of Development and the Wildland-Urban Interface, Manti-La Sal NF Counties. Created on Aug 9, 2016 on headwaterseconomics.org.

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New Policies for Old Trees: Averting a Global Crisis in a Keystone Ecological Structure. 💾
Timber • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Ecological roles of old trees; a life stage (rather than a species) that can go functionally extinct in a landscape

Quick Citation: LINDENMAYER, David B., LAURANCE, William F., FRANKLIN, Jerry F., LIKENS, Gene E., BANKS, Sam C., BLANCHARD, Wade, GIBBONS, Philip, IKIN, Karen, BLAIR, David, MCBURNEY, Lachlan, MANNING, Adrian D. and STEIN, John A.r. New Policies for Old Trees: Averting a Global Crisis in a Keystone Ecological Structure. Conservation Letters. 2013. Vol. 7, no. 1p. 61–69. DOI 10.1111/conl.12013.

The significant issue of old trees and the key roles they play in ecological communities 💾
Timber • Submitted by Mary O’Brien

Overview of the significance for MLSNF of the Lindenmayer et al. perspective/science of the value of old trees

Quick Citation: Grand Canyon Trust. 2016. Old Trees: A Significant Assessment Issue.

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